Classical Arabic - English Dictionary

by Edward William Lane (1801-1876)

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ردغ ردف ردم

1. ⇒ ردف

رَدِفَهُ, (T, Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) aor. ـَ {يَرْدَفُ}, (Ḳ,) inf. n. رَدْفٌ, (MA, KL,) He rode behind him [on the same beast]; (AZ, Sh, Zj, T, MA, Mṣb;) [and] so رَدَفَهُ, [aor. ـُ {يَرْدُفُ};] (M;) andاردفهُ↓; (AZ, Sh, T, M;) said by IAạr to signify the same as رَدِفَهُ: (T:) [or, in other words,] رَدِفَهُ signifies he became to him a رِدْف [meaning a رَدِيف]; and so رَدِفَ لَهُ; for the Arabs often add the ل with a trans. v. that governs an accus. noun; so that they say, سَمِعَ لَهُ and شَكَرَ لَهُ and نَصَحَ لَهُ, meaning سَمِعَهُ and شَكَرَهُ and نَصَحَهُ: (Fr, T:) [and also] he, or it, followed, or came after, him, or it; (Ṣ, O, Ḳ, and Ḥam p. 148;) and so رَدِفَ لَهُ; (Ḥam ibid.;) and رَدَفَهُ, aor. ـُ {يَرْدُفُ}; (Ḳ;) andاردفهُ↓; (Ṣ, Ḳ, and Ḥam ubi suprà;) andارتدفهُ↓ also signifies the same as رَدِفَهُ; (Ḳ;) رَدِفَهُ andاردفهُ↓ being like تَبِعَهُ and أَتْبَعَهُ in [form and] meaning: (Ṣ:) [رَدَّفَهُ↓, likewise, appears to be syn. with رَدِفَهُ; or, probably, رُدِّفَهُ, which seems to signify lit. he was made to ride behind him;, &c.; for it is said that] the inf. n. تَرْدِيفٌ signifies the coming, or going, behind; as also تَرْدَافٌ: (KL:) and رَدِفْتُهُ also signifies I overtook him and outwent him. (Mṣb: [explained in my copy by لحقته وسبقته: but I think that سبقته is a mistranscription for تَبِعْتُهُ; and that the meaning therefore is, I overtook him and followed him.]) One says, كَانَ نَزَلَ بِهِمْ أَمْرٌ فَرَدِفَ لَهُمْ آخَرُ أَعْظَمُ مِنْهُ [An event had befallen them, and another, of greater magnitude than it, happened afterwards to them]. (Lth,* T,* Ṣ, O.) Andاردفهُ↓ أَمْرٌ is a dial. var. of رَدِفَهُ, meaning An event happened to him afterwards: (Ṣ, O:) or رَدِفَهُمُ الأَمْرُ andأَرْدَفَهُم↓ signify the event came upon them suddenly, or unexpectedly; or came upon them so as to overwhelm them. (M.) It is said in the Ḳur [xxvii. 74], عَسَى أَنْ يَكُونَ رَدِفَ لَكُمْ بَعْضُ ٱلَّذِى تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ, meaning [Perhaps a portion of that which ye desire to hasten] may have drawn near to you; (Yoo, Fr, T, O,) as though the ل were introduced because the meaning is دَنَا لَكُمْ: or it may mean يَكُونَ رَدِفَكُمْ [may have become close behind you]; (Fr, T, O;) the ل being introduced for a reason mentioned above, as in سَمِعَ لَهُ, &c. for سَمِعَهُ, &c.: (Fr, T:) El-Aaraj read رَدَفَ لكم. (O.) And Khuzeymeh Ibn-Málik Ibn-Nahd says,

*إِذَا الجَوْزَآءُ أَرْدَفَتِ↓ الثُّرَيَّا *
* ظَنَنْتُ بِآلِ فَاطِمَةَ الظُّنُونَا *

[When Orion, or Gemini, shall ride behind, or closely follow, the Pleiades, (an event which will never occur,) I will form in my mind, respecting the family (meaning the father) of Fátimeh, opinions]: (Ṣ, O:) cited by Fr [and by J] as an ex. of اردفت in the sense of رَدِفَت: (T:) he means Fátimeh the daughter of Yedhkur Ibn-'Anazeh, who [i. e. Yedhkur] was one of the قَارِظَان. (Ṣ, O. [Respecting the قارظان, see art. قَرظ.])

2. ⇒ ردّف

see 1, in the former half of the paragraph.

3. ⇒ رادف

رادفت الدَّابَّةُ The beast allowed a رَدِيف [to ride it], and was strong enough to bear him; as alsoاردفت↓ [accord. to some]. (Mṣb.) You say, هَذِهِ دَابَّةٌ لَا تُرَادِفُ (T, Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ) andلَا تُرْدِفُ↓, (Lth, M, O, Ḳ,) but the latter is rare, (Ḳ,) or post-classical, of the language of the people of towns and villages, (T, O,) and not allowable, (T,) This beast will not allow a رَدِيف (Lth, T, M) to ride it; (Lth, T;) will not bear a رديف. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)

Root: ردف - Entry: 3. Signification: A2

مُرَادَفَةُ الجَرَادِ signifies The mounting of [locusts one behind, or upon, another;] the male locust upon the female, and the third upon those two. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)

Root: ردف - Entry: 3. Signification: A3

And مُرَادَفَةُ المُلُوكِ is [a phrase meaning The acting as a رِدْف, or as أَرْدَاف, to the kings,] from الرِّدَافَةُ [q. v.]. (O, Ḳ.) Jereer, who was of the Benoo-Yarbooa, to whom pertained the رِدَافَة in the Time of Ignorance, says,

* رَبَعْنَا وَرَادَفْنَا المُلُوكَ فَظَلِّلُوا *
* وطَابَ الأَحَالِيبِ الثُّمَامَ المُنَزَّعَا *

[We have taken the fourth part of the spoils, and we have acted as أَرْدَاف to the kings; therefore shade ye the skins of the camel-loads of milk collected from the camels in the pasture with panic grass plucked up, and so make it cool for us]: (Ṣ,* O:) وِطَاب is the pl. of the وَطْب of milk. (Ṣ.)

Root: ردف - Entry: 3. Signification: A4

[In the conventional language of lexicology, رادفهُ, inf. n. مُرَادَفَةٌ, signifies It was synonymous with it; i. e. a word with another word: as though the former supplied the place of the latter, like as the رِدْف supplied the place of the king. See also 6.]

4. ⇒ اردف

أَرْدَفْتُهُ, (T, Ṣ, Mṣb,) inf. n. إِرْدَافٌ, (Mṣb,) I made him to ride (Sh, Zj, T, Ṣ, Mṣb) behind me, (Sh,* Zj, T, Mṣb,) or with me, (Ṣ,) on the back of the [same] beast; and soاِرْتَدَفْتُهُ↓: (Mṣb:) orارتدفهُ↓ signifies he placed him behind him on the beast: (M:) and أَرْدَفْتُهُ مَعَهُ I made him to ride with him [or behind him, on the same beast]. (O, Ḳ.)

Root: ردف - Entry: 4. Signification: A2

And اردف الشَّىْءَ بِالشَّىْءِ and اردفهُ عَلَيْهِ He made the thing to follow the thing. (M.)

Root: ردف - Entry: 4. Signification: A3

See also 1, in six places.

Root: ردف - Entry: 4. Signification: A4

اردفت النُّجُومُ, [بَعْضُهَا بَعْضًا being app. understood,] The stars followed one another. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.) [See also 6.]

Root: ردف - Entry: 4. Signification: A5

See also 3, in two places.

6. ⇒ ترادف

تَرَادُفٌ is syn. with تَتَابُعٌ. (T, Ṣ, O.) You say, تَرَادَفَا They followed each other. (Ḳ.) And ترادف القَوْمُ The people, or party, followed one another: and in like manner one says of anything following another thing. (Mṣb.) [See also 4.] And ترادف الشَّىْءُ The thing was, or became, consecutive in its parts; one part of the thing followed another. (M.)

Root: ردف - Entry: 6. Signification: A2

It is also a word alluding to a certain foul act: (M, O:) from الرِّدْفُ signifying العَجُزُ. (M.) You say, (of two boys, or young men, TḲ,) تَرَادَفَا meaning تَنَاكَحَا. (Ḳ.)

Root: ردف - Entry: 6. Signification: A3

And تَرَادَفُوا عَلَيْهِ They aided, helped, or assisted, one another against him. (Aṣ, Ṣ.) And تَرَادَفَا They aided, helped, or assisted, each other; (O, Ḳ;) as also ترافدا. (O.)

Root: ردف - Entry: 6. Signification: A4

As a conventional term in lexicology, تَرَادُفٌ signifies Synonymousness; or the being synonymous. (Mz, 27th نوع; and Kull p. 130.) [You say, of two words, يَتَرَادَفَانِ They are synonymous. See also 3: and see مُتَرَادِفٌ.]

8. ⇒ ارتدف

see 1, in the former half of the paragraph:

Root: ردف - Entry: 8. Signification: A2

and see also 4, in two places.

Root: ردف - Entry: 8. Signification: A3

You say also, ارتدفهُ meaning He came behind him; syn. اِسْتَدْبَرَهُ. (Ṣ, O.) And ارتدف العَدُوَّ He took the enemy, or seized him, or took him captive, or gained the mastery over him and slew him, coming from behind him; syn. أَخَذَهُ مِنْ وَرَائِهِ أَخْذًا. (Ḳ.) أَتَيْنَا فُلَانًا فَٱرْتَدَ فْنَاهُ is explained by Ks as meaning أَخَذْنَاهُ, &c. as above [i. e. We came to such a one, and took him,, &c.]. (T, Ṣ, M,* O.)

10. ⇒ استردف

استردفهُ He asked him to make him [or to let him] ride behind him on the back of the beast. (Ṣ,* O, Mṣb, Ḳ.*)


رِدْفٌ: see رَدِيفٌ, in two places.

Root: ردف - Entry: رِدْفٌ Signification: A2

Also A sequent of a thing; (T, Ṣ, M, O, Mṣb, Ḳ;) whatever that sequent be: (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ:) pl. أَرْدَافٌ, which is its pl. in all its senses; (M;) and is particularly applied to the [stars that are] followers of [other] stars; (T, M, O;) [and] its pl. is [also] رُدَافَى; (T;) which is particularly applied to drivers of camels; or drivers who urge camels, or excite them, by singing to them: (T, Ṣ, Ḳ:) and to aids, assistants, or auxiliaries; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) [as being a man's followers; or] because, when any one of them is fatigued, another takes his place: (Ṣ:) or, as some say, رُدَافَى is syn. with رَدِيفٌ: (T:) or it is also syn. with رَدِيفٌ, and (O, Ḳ) some say, (O,) a pl. thereof. (O, Ḳ.)

Root: ردف - Entry: رِدْفٌ Signification: A3

The night: and the day: (Ḳ:) الرِّدْفَانِ signifying the night and the day, (T, Ṣ, O, Ḳ,) because each of them is a رِدْف to the other: (T:) and the morning, between daybreak and sunrise, and the evening, between sunset and nightfall; as also الأَبْرَدَانِ and البَرْدَانِ. (T in art. برد.)

Root: ردف - Entry: رِدْفٌ Signification: A4

The consequence of an event, or affair; (Ṣ, O, Ḳ;) as alsoرَدَفٌ↓. (O, Ḳ.) So the former in the saying, هٰذَا أَمْرٌ لَيْسَ لَهُ رِدْفُ [This is an event, or affair, that has not, or will not have, any consequence, or result]. (Ṣ, O.) [So too رَدِيفٌ↓; the phrase الرَّدِيفُ وَالمَرْدُوفُ↓ meaning The consequence and that of which it is the consequence.]

Root: ردف - Entry: رِدْفٌ Signification: A5

The hinder part of anything. (M.)

Root: ردف - Entry: رِدْفٌ Signification: A6

The posteriors, or buttocks, (Ṣ, M, O, Mṣb,) or peculiarly, accord. to some, (M,) of a woman: pl. أَرْدَافٌ; (M, Mṣb;) with which رَوَادِفُ is syn., but [ISd says,] I know not whether it be an extr. pl. of رِدْفٌ, or pl. ofرَادِفَةٌ↓. (M.)

Root: ردف - Entry: رِدْفٌ Signification: A7

رِدْفُ المَلِكِ He who, in the Time of Ignorance, supplied the place of the king, (T, M,) in the management of the affairs of the realm, like the وَزِير in the time of El-Islám, (T,) or like the صَاحِبُ الشُّرْطَة in this our age: (M:) in the Time of Ignorance, (Ṣ,) he who sat on the right hand of the king, and, when the king drank, drank after him, before others, and, when the king went to war, sat in his place, (Ṣ, O, Ḳ,*) and was his vicegerent over the people until he returned, and, on the return of the king's army, took the fourth of the spoil: (Ṣ, O:) he also rode behind the king upon his horse: (Ḥar p. 321:) pl. أَرْدَافٌ. (T, Ṣ, M.) [See also الرِّدَافَةُ.]

Root: ردف - Entry: رِدْفٌ Signification: A8

الرِّدْفُ [is also a name of] The bright star [a] on the tail of the constellation الدَّجَاجَة [i. e. Cygnus; which star is also called الذَّنَبُ, and ذَنَبُ الدَّجَاجَةِ]; (Ḳzw;) a certain star near to النَّسْرُ الوَاقِعُ [or a of Lyra]; (Lth, M, O, Ḳ;) and (M) so الرَّدِيفُ↓; (Ṣ, M, O;) or this is another star near to النسر الواقع. (Ḳ.) And رِدْفُ الثُّرَيَّا i. q. الجَوْزَآءُ [i. e. either Orion or Gemini]. (O.)

Root: ردف - Entry: رِدْفٌ Signification: A9

Lebeed applies the dual رِدْفَانِ to Two sailors in the hinder part of a ship. (O, Ḳ.)


رَدَفٌ: see رِدْفٌ, in the former half of the paragraph.


بَهْمٌ رَدْفَى Lambs, or kids, brought forth in the خرِيف [or autumn], and in the صَيْف [meaning spring], in the last part of the period in which sheep, or goats, bring forth. (Ibn-ʼAbbád, O, Ḳ.)


رِدَافٌ The place upon which the رَدِيف, or رِدْف rides. (Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ.)

Root: ردف - Entry: رِدَافٌ Signification: A2


رَدِيفٌ One who rides behind another (Ṣ, M, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) on the back of the [same] beast; (Mṣb;) as alsoرِدْفٌ↓ (Ṣ, M, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) andمُرْتَدِفٌ↓: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) the pl. (M, Ḳ) of the first (M) is رُدَافَى, (M, Ḳ, [in my copy of the Mṣb ردفى, which is app. a mistranscription, and there said to be irreg.,]) or the pl. of رَدِيفٌ is رِدَافٌ, (Ṣ, [so in both of my copies,]) and رُدَفَآءُ: (M:) andرُدَافَى↓ is used as a sing., syn. with رَدِيفٌ, (T, Ḳ,) accord. to some, (T,) as well as pl. [thereof]: (Ḳ:) or it is pl. of رِدْفٌ [q. v.]. (T.) [Hence,] one says, جَاؤُوا رُدَافَى They came following one another. (Ḳ.) [Hence,] also, A حَقِيبَة, and the like, that is [conveyed] behind a man; [i. e. a bag, or receptacle, in which a man puts his travellingprovisions; and any other thing that is conveyed behind a man on his beast;] and soرِدْفٌ↓. (M.)

Root: ردف - Entry: رَدِيفٌ Signification: A2

See also رِدْفٌ, in two places.

Root: ردف - Entry: رَدِيفٌ Signification: A3

Also A star rising in the east, when its opposite star is setting in the west. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.) And (Ḳ) A star facing a rising star: (Lth, M, O,* Ḳ:) used in this sense by Ru-beh; who terms the rising star رَاكِبُ المِقْدَارِ. (Lth, M.)

Root: ردف - Entry: رَدِيفٌ Signification: A4

Also One who brings his arrow after the winning of one of the players at the game called المَيْسِر, or of two of them, and asks them to insert his arrow among theirs: (O, Ḳ:) orرِدَافٌ↓ [so in the M accord. to the TT, but app. a mistranscription,] signifies one who brings his arrow after they have divided among themselves the slaughtered camel, and who is not turned back by them disappointed, but is assigned by them a portion of what has become their shares. (M.)


الرِّدَافَةُ The function of the رِدْف of a king, (Ṣ, O, Ḳ,) in the Time of Ignorance: (Ṣ: [see رِدْفٌ:]) a term similar to الخِلَافَةُ: (Ḳ:) it pertained to the Benoo-Yarbooa, in that time; because there were not among the Arabs any who waged war more than they did against the kings of El-Heereh, who therefore made peace with them on the condition that the ردافة should be assigned to them and that they should abstain from waging war against the people of El-'Irák: (Ṣ, O:) it was of two kinds; one being the riding behind the king upon his horse; and the other, what has been explained above, as from the Ṣ, voce رِدْفٌ. (Ḥar p. 321.)


رُدَافَى: see رَدِيفٌ [of which it is said to be a syn. and also a pl., or pl. of رِدْفٌ, q. v.].


الرَّادِفَةُ, in the Ḳur lxxix. 7, means The second blast [of the horn on the day of resurrection]: (Ṣ, O, Bḍ, Jel, and Ḳ in art. رجف:) or the heaven, and the stars, which shall be cleft and scattered. (Bḍ.) [See also الرَّاجِفَةُ.]

Root: ردف - Entry: الرَّادِفَةُ Signification: A2
Root: ردف - Entry: الرَّادِفَةُ Signification: A3

رَوَادِفُ is pl. of رَادِفَةٌ and of رَادُوفٌ↓. (Ḳ.) It signifies The [shoots that are termed] رَوَاكِيب [pl. of رَاكُوبٌ q. v. voce. رَاكِبٌ] of the palm-tree. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.) And Streaks [or layers] of fat, overlying one another, in the hinder part of a camel's hump: those in the fore part are called رَوَاكِبُ. (O * and Ḳ * in the present art., and A and Ḳ and TA in art. ركب.)



[المَرْدُوفُ as opposed to الرَّدِيفُ: see رِدْفٌ.]


مُرَادِفُ لَفْظٍ, in the conventional language of lexicology, A synonym of a word or expression. (Mz, 27th نوع.) [See 3, last signification: and see also مُتَرَادِفُ.]


مُرْتَدِفٌ: see رَدِيفٌ, first sentence.


مُتَرَادِفٌ, as a conventional term in lexicology, Synonymous: you say أَلْفَاظٌ مُتَرَادِفَةٌ synonymous words or expressions. (Mz, 27th نوع.) [Loosely explained in the Ḳ by the words أَنْ يَكُونَ ٱسْمًا لِشّىْءٍ وَاحِدٍ, meaning significant of one thing; which is the contr. of مُشْتَرَكٌ, i. e. “homonymous:” and in like manner, المُتَرَادِفَةُ is expl. in the O, ان تكون أَسْمَآءً لشىءٍ واحدٍ; and is said to be post-classical.] مُتَرَادِفَاتٌ [its pl. when used as a subst.] signifies Synonyms; i. e. single, or simple, words denoting the same thing considered in one and the same respect or light: thus the مُتَرَادِفَانِ differ from the noun and the definition [thereof], because these [generally] are not both single words; and from the مُتَبَايِنَانِ [or “two disparates”] such as السَّيْفُ and الصَّارِمُ, because these denote the same thing considered in two different respects, the one in respect of the substance, and the other in respect of the quality: (Fakhred-Deen [Er-Rázee] in the Mz, 27th نوع:) or they may be two simple words, as اللَّيْثُ and الأَسَدُ; and two compound expressions, as, جُلُوسُ اللَّيْثِ and قُعُودُ الأَسَدِ; and a single word and a compound expression, as المُزُّ and الحُلْوُ الحَامِضُ. (Kull p. 130.) [See also مُرَادِفُ لَفْظٍ.]

[This art. is wanting in the copies of the L and TA to which I have had access.]

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