Classical Arabic - English Dictionary

by Edward William Lane (1801-1876)

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ثيل ج جأ


Arabic Letter ج

The fifth letter of the alphabet: called جِيمٌ, which is one of the names of letters of the fem. gender, but which it is allowable to make masc.: it is one of the letters termed مَجْهُورَة [or vocal, i. e. pronounced with the voice, and not with the breath only]: and of the number of the letters termed مَحْقُورَة, and حُرُوفُ القَلْقَلَةِ, because it cannot be uttered in a case of pause without a strong compression, and a strong sound: and it is also one of those termed شَجْرِيَّة, from الشَّجْرُ, which is the place of opening of the mouth. (TA.)

Root: ج - Entry: ج Signification: A2

It is sometimes substituted for ى, when the latter letter is doubled, (Ḳ,) or is so substituted by some of the Arabs; (AA, Ṣ;) as in فُقَيْمِجٌّ, for فُقَيْمِىٌّ; (AA, Ṣ, Ḳ;) and مُرِّجٌّ, for مُرِّىٌّ. (AA, Ṣ.) An Arab of the desert recited to Khalaf El-Aḥmar,

* خَالِى عُوَيْفٌ وَأَبُو عَلِجِّ *
* الْمُطْعِمَانِ الَّحْمَ بِٱلْعَشِجِّ *

[My maternal uncle is 'Oweyf, and Aboo-'Alijj, who feed with flesh-meat at nightfall]; meaning عَلِىّ and عَشِىّ. (Ṣ.) It is also sometimes substituted for a single ى. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) AZ gives the following ex.:

* يَا رَبِّ إِنْ كُنْتَ قَبِلْتَ حُجَّتِجْ *
* فَلَا يَزَالُ شَاحِجٌ يَأْتِيكَ بِجْ *

[O my Lord, if Thou accept my plea, a brayer (or mule) shall not cease to bring me to Thee (i. e. to thy temple)]; (Ṣ;) meaning حُجَّتِى (Ḳ) [and بِى]. أَمْسَجَتْ and أَمْسَجَا are also mentioned as occurring in a verse, for أَمْسَتْ and أَمْسَى [because originally أَمْسَيَتْ and أَمْسَىَ]. (Ṣ.) But all these substitutions are abominable, (Ṣ, Ibn-ʼOsfoor,) and only allowable in cases of poetical necessity. (Ibn-ʼOsfoor.) It is further said that some of the Arabs, among whom were the tribe of Kudá'ah, changed ى, when occurring immediately after ع, into ج; and said, for رَاعٍ, [originally رَاعِىٌ,] رَاعِجٌ: this is what is termed عَجْعَجَةٌ: Fr attributes the substitution of ج for ى to the tribe of Teiyi, and some of the tribe of Asad. (TA.)

Root: ج - Entry: ج Signification: A3

Some of the Arabs also changed it into ى; saying شَيَرَةٌ for شَجَرَةٌ, and جَثْيَاثٌ for جَثْجَاثٌ, and يَصَّصَ for جَصَّصَ. (AZ, Ṣ in art. يص.)

Root: ج - Entry: ج Dissociation: B

[As a numeral, ج denotes Three; and, as such, is generally written without the dot, but thus ح, or thus ح, to distinguish it from ح, which denotes eight.]

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