Classical Arabic - English Dictionary

by Edward William Lane (1801-1876)

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سو سوأ سوب

1. ⇒ سوأ

سَآءَ, (Lth, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) aor. يَسُوْءُ, (Lth, Mṣb,) inf. n. سَوْءٌ, (Lth, M,) or سَوَآءٌ, like سَحَابٌ, (Ḳ,) [but the former is that which is commonly known,] It (a thing, Lth, M) was, or became, evil, bad, abominable, foul, unseemly, unsightly, or ugly. (Lth, M, Mṣb, Ḳ.) It is used in this sense, (IḲt, TA,) or [rather] is like بِئْسَ, (Bḍ, Jel,) in the Ḳur [xvii. 34], where it is said, سَآءَ سَبِيلًا [Evil,, &c., is it as a way of acting]: (IḲt, Bḍ, Jel, TA:) which is like the saying, سَآءَ هٰذَا مَذْهَبًا [Evil,, &c., is this as a way of acting or believing,, &c.]: the noun being in the accus. case as a specificative. (IḲt, TA.) And so in the saying, سَآءَ مَا فَعَلَ فُلَانٌ صَنِيعًا [Evil,, &c., as an action, is that which such a one has done]. (TA.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: 1. Signification: A2

One says also, سُؤْتُ بِهِ ظَنًّا, andأَسَأْتُ↓ بِهِ الظَّنَّ, [lit. I was evil in opinion respecting him, or it, and I made the opinion respecting him, or it, to be evil, each virtually meaning I held, or formed, an evil opinion respecting him, or it,] the noun being determinate, with the article ال, in the latter case, (ISk, Ṣ, Mṣb, TA,) because it is an objective complement, for the verb is trans., (IB, TA,) and the noun being indeterminate in the former case, (IB, Mṣb, TA,) because it is in the accus. case as a specificative; (IB, TA;) but some allow it to be indeterminate after أَسَأْتُ↓, which is here the contr. of أَحْسَنْتُ. (Mṣb.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: 1. Dissociation: B

It is also trans.: (Lth, TA:) you say, سَآءَهُ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) aor. يَسُوْؤُهُ, (Ṣ,) inf. n. سَوْءٌ (Ṣ, M, Ḳ) and سُوْءٌ, with ḍamm also, (TA, [and said to be an inf. n. in the Ksh and by Bḍ in ii. 46, but as it is not mentioned as an inf. n. in the Ṣ nor in the M nor the Ḳ, but is expressly said in all these to be a subst., I think that is should be rejected, or regarded as a quasi-inf. n. like كَلَامٌ and ثَوَابٌ, &c.,]) and سَوَآءٌ (Ḳ) and سَوَآءَةٌ (AZ, M, Ḳ) and سَوَاى^ِيَتَةٌ, (Ḳ,) of the measure فَعَالِيَةٌ, like عَلَانِيَةٌ (Kh, Ṣ, M,) and سَوَايَةٌ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) which is a contraction of that next preceding, (Kh, Ṣ, M,) and مَسَآءٌ (M, Ḳ) and مَسَآءَةٌ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) originally مَسْوَأَةٌ, (Ḥar p. 81,) and مَسَائِيَةٌ, which is originally مَسَاوِئَةٌ, (Kh, Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) and مَسَايَةٌ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) which is a contraction of that next preceding, (Kh, Ṣ,) and مَسَائِيَّةٌ, (M, Ḳ,) this last written in the L with two ى s, [i. e. مَسَايِيَّةٌ,] (TA,) [He did evil to him;] he did to him that which he disliked, or hated; (M, Ḳ;) he displeased, grieved, or vexed, him; contr. of سَرَّهُ. (Ṣ.) One says, سُؤْتُ الرَّجُلَ, meaning I displeased, grieved, or vexed, the man by what he saw [or experienced] from me. (Ṣ.) And أَرَدْتُ مَسَآءَتَكَ and مَسَائِيَتَكَ [I desired to displease, grieve, or vex, thee]. (Lth, TA.) And إِنَّ اللَّيْلَ طَوِيلٌ وَلَا يَسُؤْ بَالُهُ [Verily the night is long, and may the state thereof not displease, grieve, or vex, me]: meaning لَا يَسُؤْنِى بَالُهُ; and expressing a prayer. (Lḥ, M. [In the TA, in the place of بَالُهُ is put ما له; as though meaning مَا لَهُ مِنَ الحَوَادِثِ or the like, i. e. its events, or accidents,, &c.]) And لَهُ عِنْدِى مَا سَآءَهُ وَنَآءَهُ [I have, belonging to him, or I owe him, what grieved him, and oppressed him by its weight], and مَا يَسُوْؤُهُ وَيَنُوْؤُهُ [what does, or will, grieve him,, &c.]. (Ṣ.) تَرَكَ مَا يَسُوْؤُهُ وَيَنُوْؤُهُ [He left, or has left, what will grieve him, and oppress him by its weight, on the day of judgment, by the responsibility that it has imposed upon him,] is a prov., said of him who has left his property to his heirs. (Meyd, TA.) It is said that El-Mahboobee was possessed of riches; and when death visited him, he desired to make a testament; so it was said to him, “What wilt thou write?” and he answered, “Write ye, 'Such a one,' meaning himself, 'has left what will grieve him, and oppress him by its weight:'” i. e., property which his heirs will devour, while the burden thereof will remain upon him. (Meyd, TA.) [See also 4.]

Root: سوأ - Entry: 1. Signification: B2

One says also, سُؤْتُ وَجْهَ فُلَانٍ, aor. أَسُوْؤُهُ, inf. n. مَسَآءَةٌ and مَسَائِيَةٌ, (Lth, TA,) i. q. قَبَحْتُهُ [i. e. I said, May God remove the person (lit. the face) of such a one far from good, or prosperity,, &c.]. (TA. [It is said in a copy of the M, that سُؤْتُ لَهُ وَجْهَهُ means قَبَّحْتُهُ: but I think that the right explanation is قَبَحْتُهُ, without teshdeed, meaning I said to him, قَبَحَ ٱللّٰهُ وَجْهَكَ: see art. قبح.])

2. ⇒ سوّأ

سوّأ v[He corrupted, or marred]. You say, سَوِّ وَلَا تُسَوِّئْ Rectify thou, and do not corrupt, or mar. (A, TA.) [See also 4.]

Root: سوأ - Entry: 2. Signification: A2

سوّأ عَلَيْهِ He said to him أَسَأْتُ [Thou hast done ill]. (M.) You say, سَوَّأْتُ عَلَيْهِ مَا صَنَعَ, (Ṣ,) or صَنِيعَهُ, (Ḳ,) i. e. فِعْلَهُ, (TA,) inf. n. تَسْوِئَةٌ and تَسْوِىْءٌ, I discommended to him what he had done, or his deed; and said to him أَسَأْتَ [Thou hast done ill]. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) And إِنْ أَسَأْتُ فَسَوِّئْ عَلَىَّ [If I do ill, say thou to me, Thou hast done ill]. (Ṣ.)

4. ⇒ اسوأ

أَسَآءَ, [inf. n. إِسَآءَةٌ,] He did evil, or ill; or acted ill; contr. of أَحْسَنَ: (Ṣ, M, Ḳ:) [and so] اسِآء فِى فِعْلِهِ. (Mṣb.) You say, اسآء إِلَيْهِ (Ṣ, Ḳ) and لَهُ and عَلَيهِ and بِهِ (TA) He did evil or ill, or acted ill, to him. (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: 4. Signification: A2

[See also أَسْوَى, in several senses, in art. سوى.]

Root: سوأ - Entry: 4. Dissociation: B

اسآءهُ He corrupted it, or marred it; (M, Ḳ;) [did it ill;] did it not well; namely, a thing. (M.) It is said in a prov., أَسَآءَ كَارِهٌ مَا عَمِلَ [An unwilling person did ill what he did]; relating to a man who was compelled against his will, by another, to do a thing, and marred it, or did it not well: it is applied to the man who seeks an object of want and does not take pains to accomplish it. (M, Meyd.*) See also 1, in two places, in the former half of the paragraph. [And see 2.]

8. ⇒ استوأ

استآء He experienced evil, or that which he disliked or hated, (Ṣ,* Ḳ, TA,) or displeasure, (TA,) or grief, or anxiety. (M, TA.) اِسْتَآءَ لَهَا occurs in a trad. as meaning He (the Prophet) became displeased, or grieved, or anxious, on account of it; i. e., on account of a dream that had been related to him: or, accord. to one relation, the right reading is اِسْتَآلَهَا, meaning “he sought the interpretation of it, by consideration.” (TA.)


سَوْءٌ is an inf. n. of سَآءَ, (Lth, Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) intrans., (Lth, M,) and trans.: (Ṣ, M, Ḳ:) and is also used as an epithet, applied to a man, (M, Mṣb, and Ḥam p. 712,) and to an action. (Mṣb.) You say رَجُلُ سَوْءٍ (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ) [A man of evil nature or doings; or] a man who does what is evil, displeasing, grievous, or vexatious: (M, TA:) and رَجُلُ السَّوْءِ [the man of evil nature or doings, &c.]: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) and ذِئْبُ السَّوْءِ [the wolf of evil nature, &c.], as in a verse cited voce أَحَالَ, in art. حول: (Ṣ:) and عَمَلُ سَوْءٍ [a deed of evil nature]: (M, Mṣb:) and عَمَلُ السَّوْءِ [the deed of evil nature]: (Ḥam p. 498:) and نَعْتُ سَوْءٍ [an epithet of evil nature]: (O and Ḳ in art. سحق:) and سَعْفُ سَوْءٍ a bad commodity: (O and TA in art. سعف:) and if you make the former word determinate [by means of the article ال], you use the latter as an epithet [also], (M,* Mṣb, and Ḥam, p. 712,*) and you say الرَّجُلُ السَّوْءُ [the evil man, or the man who does what is evil, &c.]: (Mṣb, and Ḥam p. 712:) and العَمَلُ السَّوْءُ [the evil deed]: (Mṣb:) [this last phrase I hold to be correct, regarding السَّوْءُ in this case as originally an inf. n. of the intrans. verb سَآءَ, and therefore capable of being used as an epithet applied to anything; though] IB says that السَّوْءُ used as an epithet is applied to a man but not to a deed: (TA:) [in what here follows from the Ṣ, denying the correctness of another phrase mentioned above on the authority of lexicologists of high repute, there is, in my opinion, an obvious mistranscription, twice occurring, السَّوْءُ for السُّوْءُ, which I suppose to have passed from an early copy of that work into most other copies thereof, for I find it alike in all to which I have had access:] Akh says, one should not say الرَّجُلُ السَّوْءُ, though one says الحَقُّ اليَقِينُ as well as حَقُّ اليَقِينِ; for السَّوْءُ is not the same as الرَّجُلُ, but اليَقِينُ is the same as الحَقُّ: he says, also, nor should one say, هٰذَا رَجُلُ السُّوْءِ with damm: (Ṣ:) [here the expression “with damm” may perhaps be meant to refer to السوء in all of the three instances above; not in the last only:] IB says, [in remarking on this passage of the Ṣ, in which he appears to have read السُّوْء, with damm, in all of the three instances,] Akh allows one's saying رَجُلُ السَّوْءِ and رَجُلُ سَوْءٍ, with fet-ḥ to the س in both; but not رَجُلُ السُّوْءِ, with damm to the س, because السُّوْءُ is a subst., meaning “harm, injury, hurt, mischief, or damage,” and “evilness of state or condition;” and رَجُل is prefixed, as governing a gen. case, only to the inf. n.: and he adds that one says, هٰذَا الرَّجُلُ السَّوْءُ, not prefixing [the former noun to the latter, but using the latter as an epithet]. (TA.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: سَوْءٌ Signification: A2

See also the next paragraph, in six places.


سُوْءٌ is the subst. from سَآءَهُ; (Ṣ, M,* Ḳ;) [so, app., accord. to the generality of the lexicologists;] or inf. n. (Ksh and Bḍ in ii. 46) of سَيِّئٌ, (Ksh ibid.,) or of سَآءَ, aor. يَسُوْءُ, (Bḍ ibid.,) or of سَآءَهُ [q. v.]; (TA;) signifying Evilness, badness, abominableness, foulness, or unseemliness; [and displeasingness, grievousness, or vexatiousness;] as, for instance, of natural disposition, and of doings: (Ksh ubi suprà:) vitious, immoral, unrighteous, sinful, or wicked, conduct: [hence, رَمَاهُ بِسُوْءٍ: see art. رمى:] anything disapproved, or disallowed; or regarded as evil, bad, abominable, foul, or unseemly: (Ṣ, TA:) [an evil action or event:] evilness of state or condition: harm, injury, hurt, mischief, or damage: (IB, TA:) anything that is mentioned as being سَيِّئ [i. e. evil,, &c.]: (Lth, TA:) any evil, evil affection, cause of mischief or harm or injury, noxious or destructive thing, calamity, disease, or malady: (M, Ḳ, TA:) [pl. أَسْوَآءٌ, accord. to a general rule.] The saying مَا أُنْكِرُكَ مِنْ سُوْءٍ means I do not disacknowledge thee in consequence of سُوْء [i. e. evilness,, &c.,] that I have seen in thee, but only in consequence of my little knowledge of thee. (Ṣ.) لِنَصْرِفَ عَنْهُ السُّوْءَ وَالفَحْشَآءَ, in the Ḳur [xii. 24], is said by Zj to mean, [In order that we might turn away from him] unfaithfulness to his master, and adultery. (M, TA.) And سُوْءُ الحِسَابِ, in the Ḳur [xiii. 18, i. e. The evilness of the reckoning], is expl. by him as meaning a reckoning in which no good work will be accepted, and no evil work passed over; because infidelity will have made the former to be of no avail: or, as some say, it means a reckoning pursued to the utmost extent, in which no evil work will be passed over. (M, TA.) لَا خَيْرَ فِى قَوْلِ السُّوْءِ means There is no good in thy saying سُوْء [i. e. a thing that is evil; قول being here used in its original sense of an inf. n.]: but if you say السَّوْء↓, [you use قول in the sense of مَقُول, and] the meaning is, in evil speech. (TA as from the Ḳ, but not in the CK nor in my MṢ. copy of the Ḳ.) سُوْءٌ accord. to one reading, andسَوْءٌ↓ accord. to another, (Ḳ, TA, [but all that is given in this sentence as from the Ḳ is so given only on the authority of the TA, not being in the CK nor in my MṢ. copy of the Ḳ]) the latter of which readings is the more common, (TA,) in the phrase دَائِرَةُ السّوء, (Ḳ, TA,) in the Ḳur [ix. 99 and xlviii. 6], (TA,) mean Defeat, and evil; (Ḳ, TA;) and trial, or affliction, and torment; (TA;) and perdition, and destruction, or corruption: (Ḳ, TA:) and in like manner in the saying, أُمْطِرَتْ مَطَرَ السّوءِ, (Ḳ, TA,) in the Ḳur [xxv. 42]: (TA:) or السُّوْء means harm, injury, hurt, mischief, or damage; and evilness of state or condition; [as expl. before;] andالسَّوْء↓, corruption, or destruction, or perdition: (Ḳ,* TA:) or السُّوْء in the phrase دَائِرَةُ السُّوْءِ means defeat and evil; and the reading السَّوْء↓ is from [i. e. syn. with] المَسَآءَة [as inf. n.]. (Ṣ. [See also دَائِرَةٌ, in art. دور.]) Accord. to Zj, in the saying in the Ḳur [xlviii. 6], ٱلظَّانِّينَ بِٱللّٰهِ ظَنَّ ٱلسَّوْءِ↓, (TA,) meaning ظَنَّ الأَمْرِ السَّوْءِ [i. e. Who opine, of God, the opining of the evil thing], (Bḍ,) it is allowable to read ظَنَّ السُّوْءِ; (T, TA;) and thus some read in this instance: (Jel:) but AM says, in the saying in the Ḳur [xlviii. 12], وَظَنَنْتُمْ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ↓ [And ye opined the evil opining], it is read only with fet-ḥ, and damm to the س is not allowable in this instance, for there is in it no meaning of trial, or affliction, and torment: (TA:) [for this distinction, however, I see no reason; and it is not correct; for] السوء is with fet-ḥ and with damm to the س in the three sentences [whereof this last is one] in which it occurs in this chapter. (Jel.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: سُوْءٌ Signification: A2

In the Ḳur vii. 188, it is said to mean † Diabolical possession; or insanity, or madness. (M, TA.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: سُوْءٌ Signification: A3

Leprosy, syn. بَرَصٌ, (Lth, Ṣ, M, Ḳ, TA,) is said to be its meaning in the Ḳur xx. 23 and xxvii. 12 and xxviii. 32. (Ṣ, TA.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: سُوْءٌ Signification: A4

† The fire: so in the Ḳur xxx. 9, accord. to the reading السُّوْءَ: (Ḳ, TA:) said to mean there Hell: but the reading commonly known is السُّوْءَى↓. (TA.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: سُوْءٌ Signification: A5

And † Weakness in the eye. (Ḳ. [Thus, i. e. with damm to the س, in the CK and TḲ: in the TA said to be بالفتح; but this is evidently a mistake for بالضمّ.])


سَىْءٌ: see سَيِّئٌ.


سَوْءَةٌ The عَوْرَة [or pudendum], (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb,) i. e. (Mṣb) the فَرْج [which means the same, or the external portion of the organs of generation], (Lth, M, IAth, Mṣb, Ḳ,) of a man, and of a woman: (Lth, Mṣb, TA:) and the anus: (Az and TA in art. سوى:) dual سَوْءَتَانِ: and pl. سَوْآتٌ: so called because its becoming exposed to men displease [or shames] the owner thereof; (Mṣb;) or because of its unseemliness. (Ḥam p. 510.) In the Ḳur vii. 19, for سَوْآتِهِمَا, some read سَوَاتِهِمَا; and some, سَوَّاتِهِمَا. (Bḍ.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: سَوْءَةٌ Signification: A2

In the Ḳur v. 34, it means The dead body, or corpse; (Bḍ, Jel;) because it is deemed unseemly to be seen. (Bḍ.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: سَوْءَةٌ Signification: A3

Accord. to IAth, the former is the primary signification: and hence it is transferred to denote Any saying, or action, of which one is ashamed when it appears: (TA:) any evil, bad, abominable, foul, or unseemly, saying or action; (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA;) as alsoسَوْآءُ↓: (M:) any disgracing action or thing: (Lth, TA:) an evil, abominable, or unseemly, property, quality, custom, or practics; (Ḳ, TA;) as alsoسَوْآءُ↓, orسَوْءَى↓; (accord. to different copies of the Ḳ; [the latter perhaps fem. ofأَسْوَأُ↓ like the former, of the same class as دَفْأَى and دَنْأَى, or fem. ofسَوْآنُ↓, like عَطْشَى fem. of عَطْشَانُ;]) or so both of these; (TA;) or soسَوْءَةٌ سَوْآءُ↓: (Ṣ:) [or this last means a property,, &c., that is very evil, &c.] One says, سَوْءَةً لِفُلَانٍ May a disgracing action or thing befall such a one; [or disgrace, or shame, to such a one;] using the accus. case because it is an expression of reviling and imprecation. (Lth, TA.) [See also سَيِّئَةٌ and سُوْءَى.]

Root: سوأ - Entry: سَوْءَةٌ Signification: A4

السَّوْءَةُ السَّوْءَى↓ [orالسَّوْءَةُ السَّوْآءُ↓] also means The contrarious wife or woman. (TA.)


سَايَةٌ as used in the saying ضَرَبَ فُلَانٌ عَلَى فُلَانٍ سَايَةً is held by some to be originally with ء, and of the measure فَعْلَةٌ, from السَّوْءُ; so that the saying means Such a one did to such a one a thing that caused displeasure to him; and did evil to him: others hold that the saying means such a one made a way to do what he desired to such a one; in which case, ساية is of the measure فَعْلَةٌ from سَوَّيْتُ; originally سَوْيَةٌ, which is changed into سَيَّةٌ, and then into سَايَةٌ, in like manner as دِوَّانٌ is changed into دِيوَانٌ. (Aboo-Bekr, TA.) [See the same word in art. سوى.]


سَوْءَى: see سَوْءَةٌ, in two places.


سُوْءَى is [fem. of أَسْوَأُ↓, q. v., as meaning More, and most, evil, bad, abominable, foul, unseemly, unsightly, or ugly: and is also] a subst. signifying an evil, a bad, an abominable, a foul, or an unseemly, action; (Mṣb, TA;) i. q. فَعْلَةٌ سَيِّئَةٌ [and سَيِّئَةٌ alone]: in this sense, [as well as in the former,] (TA,) contr. of حُسْنَى. (Ṣ, M, Ḳ, TA.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: سُوْءَى Signification: A2

In the Ḳur xxx. 9, (Ṣ, TA,) accord. to the reading commonly known, (TA,) [as contr. of الحُسْنَى,] السُّوْءَى means † The fire (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA) of Hell. (TA.) See also سُوْءٌ, last explanation but one.


Root: سوأ - Entry: سَوْآءُ Signification: A2


خَزْيَانُ سَوْآنُ is [app. an instance of the alteration of the latter of two epithets to assimilate it to the former, originally خَزْيَانُ أَسْوَأُ, meaning Ashamed, or base, or vile, or ignominious, and evil, bad,, &c.,] from القُبْحُ. (M, TA.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: سَوْآنُ Signification: A2


سَيِّئٌ, [originally سَيْوِئٌ (as will be shown below, voce سَيِّئَةٌ), then سَيْيِئٌ, and then سَيِّئٌ,] applied to a thing [of any kind], (Lth, TA,) Evil, bad, abominable, foul, unseemly, unsightly, or ugly; (Lth, Mṣb, TA;) contr. of حَسَنٌ: (Mṣb:) sometimes contracted into سَىْءٌ↓, like as هَيِّنٌ is contracted in هَيْنٌ, and لَيّنٌ into لَيْنٌ; as in the saying of Et-Tuhawee,

* وَلَا يَجْزُونَ مِنْ حَسَنٍ مِسَىْءٍ *
* وَلَا يَجْزُونَ مِنْ غِلَظٍ بِلِينِ *

[And they will not requite good with evil, nor will they requite roughness with gentleness]. (Ṣ.) You say قَوْلٌ سَيِّئٌ [An evil saying; or] a saying that displeases. (M, TA.) And فَعْلَةٌ سَيِّئَةٌ [An evil action or deed]. (TA.) And it is said in the Ḳur [xxxv. 41], وَمَكْرَ ٱلسَّيِّئِ وَلَا يَحِيقُ ٱلْمَكْرُ ٱلسَّيِّئٌ إِلَّا بِأَهْلِهِ [And in the plotting of that which is evil; but the evil plotting shall not beset any save the authors thereof]. (M, TA.) One says also, فُلَانٌ سَيِّئُ الاِخْتِيَارِ [Such a one is evil in respect of choice, or preference]. (Ṣ.) [See also the next paragraph.]


سَيِّئَةٌ [fem. of سَيِّئٌ, q. v.: and also a subst., being transferred from the category of epithets to that of substs. by the affix ة], originally سَيْوِئَةٌ, (Ṣ,) An evil act or action; contr. of حَسَنَةٌ; (Mṣb;) a fault, an offence, or an act of disobedience; or such as is intentional; a sin, a crime, or an act of disobedience for which one deserves punishment; syn. خَطِيْئَةٌ: (M, Ḳ:) pl. سَيِّئَاتٌ. (TA.) It is said in a trad., الحَسَنَةُ بَيْنَ السَّيِّئَتَيْنِ [The good act is between the two evil acts]; meaning that the exceeding of the just bounds is a سَيِّئَة, and the falling short thereof is a سَيِّئَة, and the pursuing a middle course between these two is a حَسَنَة. (TA.) [See also سَوْءَةٌ and سُوْءَى.]

Root: سوأ - Entry: سَيِّئَةٌ Signification: A2

Also; tropically, ‡ The recompense of a سَيِّئَة properly so termed [i. e. as expl. above]. (Mṣb in art. مكر.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: سَيِّئَةٌ Signification: A3

An evil, or evil accident; a calamity; a misfortune; (Ksh in iv. 81;) a trial, or an affliction; opposed to حَسَنَةٌ; (Ksh and Bḍ in iv. 80;) scarcity of herbage, or of the goods, conveniences, and comforts, of life; straitness of circumstances; and unsuccessfulness; thus [likewise] opposed to حَسَنَةٌ in the Ḳur iv. 80. (Er-Rághib, TA in art. حسن.)


أَسْوَأُ; fem. سُوْءَى: see the latter word. One says, هُوَ أَسْوَأُ القَوْمِ He is the most evil,, &c., of the people, or party; syn. أَقْبَحُهُمْ: and هِىَ السُّوْءَى She is the most evil,, &c. (Mṣb.) And the [common] people say أَسْوَأُ الأَحْوَالِ, meaning The [worst, or] most scanty, and weakest, of states or conditions. (Mṣb.)

Root: سوأ - Entry: أَسْوَأُ Dissociation: B

[Also,] applied as an epithet to a man, (El-Umawee, M, TA,) Evil, bad, abominable, foul, unseemly, unsightly, or ugly: (El-Umawee, M, Ḳ, TA:) fem. سَوْآءُ↓, (El-Umawee, M, Ḳ,) which is thus applied to a woman; (El-Umawee, Ṣ, M;) or this is an instance of the measure فَععلَآءُ having no [masc. of the measure] أَفَعَلُ. (M, TA.) See also سَوْءَةٌ, in four places. It is said in a trad. (M, TA) of the Prophet, or of ʼOmar, (TA,) سَوْآءُ↓ وَلُودٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ حَسْنَآءَ عَقِيمٍ [An ugly prolific woman is better than a beautiful barren one]. (M, TA.)


مَسَآءَةٌ an inf. n. of سَآءَهُ: (Ṣ, M, Ḳ:) and [also a subst. signifying An evil, as being] a cause of grief or vexation; contr. of مَسَرَّةٌ: originally مَسْوَأَةٌ: and therefore the pl. is مَسَاوٍ↓, for مَسَاوِئُ; (Mṣb;) signifying also vices, faults, defects, or imperfections; (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, TA;) and diseases; (Ṣ, TA;) and acts of disobedience: (Mṣb:) so in the saying, بَدَتْ مَسَاوِيهِ His acts of disobedience, and vices, faults,, &c., appeared: (Mṣb:) and الخَيْلُ تَجْرِى عَلَى مَسَاوِيهَا Horses run, notwithstanding their vices, or faults,, &c., (Ṣ, Meyd, Ḳ,) and diseases; (Ṣ, Meyd;) for their generousness impels them to do so: (Ṣ, Meyd, Ḳ: but omitted in the CK:) and in like manner, the ingenuous generous man bears difficulties, and defends, or protects, what he is bound to defend or protect, or to regard as sacred, or inviolable, though he be weak, and practises generosity in all circumstances: (Meyd, TA:) or it is applied in relation to the protection and defence of what should be sacred, or inviolable, or of wives, or women under covert, and the members of one's household, notwithstanding harm, or injury, and fear: or it means that one may seek to defend himself by means of a man though there be in him qualities disapproved: (MF, TA:) but accord. to Lḥ, المَسَاوِى has no proper sing., like المَحَاسِنُ: (Meyd, TA:*) accord. to some of the writers on inflection, it is the contr. of المَحَاسِنُ, and an anomalous pl. of السُّوْءُ, being originally with ء. (TA.)


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