Arabic Letter ل
The twenty-third letter of the alphabet; called لَامٌ. It is one of the letters termed مَجْهُورَة, or vocal, and also belongs to the class of الحُرُوفُ الذُّلْقُ, or ذَوْلَقِيَّة, i. e. letters pronounced by means of the tip of the tongue and the lip; it is one of the letters of augmentation.
As a numeral it denotes thirty.
For the particles لا لِ لَ, &c., see Supplement.
لَنَا فِى بَنِى فُلَانٍ دِمَآءٌ [We have a claim, upon the sons of such a one, to blood, lit. bloods]. (Ṣ in art. خبل.)
لَهُ أَنْ يَفْعَلَ كَذَا He shall have a right to do such a thing: see عَقَبَ.
رَأَيْتُ لَهُ بَرِيقًا I saw it to have a glistening: and سَمِعْتُ لَهُ صَوْتًا I heard him, or it, to have a sound proceeding from him, or it; or rather, I heard a sound attributable, or to be attributed, to him, or it; meaning, I heard him, or it, utter or produce, a sound; or I heard in consequence of it,, &c. (see سَطَعٌ).
لَهُ كَذَا often means Such a thing appertains, or is attributable, to him, or it.
مَا لَنَا أَلَّا نُقَاتِلَ, in the Ḳur ii. 247, [i. e. أَنْ لَا,] means What object have we (أَىُّ غَرَضٍ لَنَا) in (فِى) [that we should not fight? or, in our] not fighting? (Bḍ:) And مَا لَنَا أَلَّا نَتَوَكَّلَ عَلَى ٱللّٰهِ, in the same, xiv. 15, means What excuse have we (أَىُّ عُذْرٍ لَنَا) in (فِى) [that we should not rely upon God? or, in our] not relying upon God? (Bḍ.) مَا لَنَا أَنْ لَا نَفْعَلَ كَذَا [may be rendered What reason, or motive, have we that we should not do such a thing? or, in that,, &c.? or in our not doing, &c.? for] the original form of the phrase is مَا لَنَا فِى أَنْ لَا نَفْعَلَ كَذَا (Mugh, voce أَنْ.) Often أَنْ is omitted, but meant to be understood: you say also, مَا لَكَ تَفْعَلُ كَذَا What reason, or motive, hast thou that thou dost such a thing? or what aileth thee, &c.? It is often like مَا بَالُكَ.
غَرَّدَ بِصَوْتٍ لَهُ ضَعِيفٍ It (a bird) warbled with a feeble voice peculiar to it.
مَا لَكَ بِكَذَا: see a verse cited in art. علو.
أَنَا لَهَا I am for it; i. e., I am the man for it; meaning a war, or battle, حَرْبٌ, which is of the fem. gender. Often occurring in old Arabic stories.
لِ in the sense of فِى: see Mṣb, voce عِدَّةٌ.
تَعْسًا لَهُ, and قُبْحَا لَهُ, and نَتْنًا لَهُ, &c.: see the first word of each of these phrases.
مَنْ لِى بِكَذَا: see بِ (near the end of the paragraph): and see also above.
لِ in the sense of بَعْد: see an ex. voce أَفْطَرَ, and see other exs. in the Mṣb, art. فطر.
لِ in the sense of بَعْدَ, or مِنْ وَقْتِ: see غَمٌّ.
لِلَيْلَةٍ خَلَتْ When one night had passed; i. e. on the first day of the month: ل in this case meaning عِنْدَ.
يَا لِلْفَلِيقَةِ come with succour to the calamity: see فِلْقٌ.
لِ in the sense of عَلَى: see Ḳur xvii. 108-9, and xvii. 7, and xxxvii. 103: and see exs. voce فُوهٌ (last quarter).
ل in فَدًى لَكَ, &c.: see art. فدى.
لَ used as a corroborative, (see Ṣ in art. لوم,) after لَوْ and لُوْلَا the conditional إِنْ, is sometimes difficult to express in English, except by emphasis in pronunciation; as in أَمَا إِنَّهُ لَرَجُلٌ كَرِيمٌ Verily, or now surely, he is a generous man. This ex. occurs voce أَمَا.
لَ redundantly prefixed, for corroboration, to the ك of comparison: see a verse of Tarafeh voce ثِنْىٌ; and another similar instance in the Mugh, art. ل.
لَظَرُفَ زَيْدٌ means How excellent, or elegant, in mind, manners, address, speech, person, or the like, is Zeyd! syn. مَا أَظْرَفَهُ: and لَكَرُمَ عَمْرٌو How generous,, &c., is Amr! syn. مَا أَكْرَمَهُ. (Mugh.)
لَنِعْمَ هُوَ Excellent indeed is he, or it.
مَا كَانَ لِيَفْعَلَ means, accord. to the Koofees, مَا كَانَ يَفْعَلُ; the ل being redundant, to corroborate the negation: accord. to the Basrees, مَا كَانَ قَاصِدًا لِأَنْ يَفْعَلَ. (Mugh.) See an ex. voce عَلَى as equivalent to فِى.
لَ in sentences beginning with إِنْ for إِنَّ: see p. 107, cols. 2 and 3: and see conj. 3 in art, قرأ.
ل of inception (لَامُ الإِبْتِدَآءِ): see exs. of this voce إِنَّ: and see De Sacy's Gr. Ar. n. 582, &c.
لَ termed لَامُ الجَوَابِ is, I think, best rendered by Then; or in that case: see exs. voce أَمَا.
لَ in لَعَمْرُ ٱللّٰهِ is [not a particle denoting swearing, but merely] a corroborative of the inchoative; the enunciative of which, i. e. قَسَمِى, or مَا أُقْسِمُ بِهِ, is understood. (Ṣ, art. عمر.)
يَا لَزَيْدٍ, and يَالَ زَيْدٍ, accord. to the Koofees, is a contraction of يَا آلَ زَيْدٍ. (Mugh, letter ل; and El-Ashmoonee on the Alfeeyeh, الاستفاثة.) It seems that where the ل is not connected with the word following it, يَالَ is generally, if not always, for يَا آلَ; and so sometimes when it is connected. See يَالَ غُدَرَ, voce غَادِرٌ, and see عَجَبٌ. See also De Sacy's Gr. Ar., 2nd ed., i. 476, note.
لَا, the negative, does not necessarily restrict to the signification of future time a marfooa aor. following it: in a case of this kind, مَا is often substituted for it in the explanation of a phrase; as in the instance of لَا يَعْرِفُ هِرَّا مِنْ بِرٍّ, in the TA, art. بر; and the aor. is more properly rendered by the present than by the future.
لَا رَجُلَ قَائِمٌ There is not any man standing: (Mugh:) but when the subst. and epithet are both simple words, and not separated, the latter may be used in three different ways; as in لَا رَجُلَ ظَرِيفَ and ظَرِيفًا and ظَرِيفٌ; otherwise it must be marfooa or mansoob, but not mebnee: this relates to لا used لِنَفْىِ الجِنْسِ. (Ibn-ʼAḳeel, p. 106.)
لا, also, Lest. See رَكَبَهُ.
[لَا لَهُ وَلَا عَلَيْهِ There is nothing due to him, nor anything to be demanded of him. (Thus I have rendered this phrase, voce مَلَسَى, in three places.) For] when لا is a general negative, the context renders it allowable to suppress its subject, as in لَا عَلَيْكَ, for لَا بَأْسَ عَلَيْكَ; and sometimes the predicate, when known, is suppressed, as in لَا بَأْسَ. (Mṣb.)
لَاشَ, for لَا شَىْءَ: see art. لوش.
كَلَا وَلَا [As the time occupied in saying لَا وَلَا]. See an ex. in the TA, voce لوْذَان.
لَا وَلَا Olive-oil: in allusion to the words in the Ḳur xxiv. 35, occurring in a trad.
لَا يَقْرَأِ, as a prohibition, and لا يَقْرَأُ as an enunciative with the same meaning: see a trad. thus commencing in the Jámiʼ eṣ-Ṣagheer: and see the Ḳur lvi. 78: and see an ex. voce رَهْنٌ.
لَا أَغَرُّ وَلَا بَهِيمٌ: see بَهِيمٌ.
لَا in a case of pausation pronounced لَأْ: see art. ا (near the end).