Classical Arabic - English Dictionary

by Edward William Lane (1801-1876)

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اثل اثم اثن

1. ⇒ أثم

أَثِمَ, (Lth, Ṣ, M, &c.,) aor. ـَ {يَأْثَمُ}, (Lth, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. إِثْمٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) or أَثَمٌ, the former being a simple subst., (Mṣb,) and مَأْثَمٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) He fell into what is termed إِثْمٌ[i. e. a sin, or crime,, &c.]; (Lth, T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb,* Ḳ *;) [he sinned; committed a sin, or crime;] he did what was unlawful: (M,* Ḳ:) andتَأْثِيمٌ↓ signifies the same as إِثْمٌ: (Ḳ:) it may be either an inf. n. ofأَثَمَ↓, which [says ISd] I have not heard, or, as Sb holds it to be, a simple subst. like تَنْبِيتٌ: (M:) and is said to be used in the sense of إِثْم in the Ḳur lii. 23 [and lvi. 24]. (TA.) [It should be added also, thatتأْثَامٌ↓, like تَكْذَابٌ, is syn. with تأْثِيمٌ and إِثْمٌ; and, like تأثيم, may be an inf. n. ofأَثَّمَ↓, or a simple subst.: see an ex. voce بَرُوقٌ.] In the dial. of some of the Arabs, the first letter of the aor. is with kesr, as in تِعْلَمُ and نِعْلَمُ; and as the hemzeh in إِثْمٌ is with kesr, the radical hemzeh [in the aor.] is changed into ى; so that they say إِيثَمُ and تِيثَمُ [for آثَمُ and تَأْثَمُ.] (TA.) In the saying,

* لَوْ قُلْتَ مَا فِى قَوْمَهَا لَمْ تِيثَمِ *
* يَفْضُلَهَا فِى حَسَبٍ وَمِيسَمِ *

the meaning is, [Shouldst thou say, thou wouldst not sin, or do wrong, in so saying,] There is not, among her people, any one who excels her [in grounds of pretension to respect, and in impress, or character, of beauty]. (M.)

Root: اثم - Entry: 1. Dissociation: B

أَثَمَهُ ٱللّٰهُ فِى كَذَا, aor. ـُ {يَأْثُمُ} (Ṣ, Ḳ) and ـِ {يَأْثِمُ}, (Ṣ,) or ـَ, (Ḳ,) but there is no other authority than the Ḳ for this last, nor is there any reason for it, as the medial radical letter is not faucial, nor is the final, and in the Iktitáf el-Azáhir the aor. is said to be ـِ and ـُ, (MF, TA,) [God reckoned him to have sinned, or committed a crime or the like, in such a thing; or] God reckoned such a thing against him as an إِثْم: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or أَثَمَهُ, aor. ـِ {يَأْثِمُ} (Fr, T, M, Mṣb) and ـُ {يَأْثُمُ}, (Mṣb,) inf. n. أَثْمٌ (Fr, T, Mṣb) and أَثَامٌ (Fr, T, TA) and إِثَامٌ, (Fr, TA,) He (God) requited him, (Fr, T,) or punished him, (M,) for what is termed إِثْمٌ [i. e. sin, or crime,, &c.]: (Fr, T, M:) [see also أَثَامٌ below:] or he (a man) pronounced him to be آثم [i. e. a sinner, or the like]: (Mṣb:) [or] آثَمَهُ↓, aor. يَؤْثِمُهُ, has this last signification, said of God; and also signifies He found him to be so. (T.)

Root: اثم - Entry: 1. Signification: B2

You say also, أَثَمَتِ النَّاقَةُ المَشْىَ, aor. ـِ {يَأْثِمُ}, inf. n. أَثْمٌ, The she-camel was slow. (M.)

2. ⇒ أثّم

أثّمهُ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَأْثِيمٌ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) He said to him أَثِمْتَ [Thou hast fallen into a sin, or crime,, &c.; hast sinned,, &c.]. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.)

Root: اثم - Entry: 2. Dissociation: B

See also 1, first and second sentences.

4. ⇒ آثم

آثمهُ He made him, or caused him, to fall into what is termed إِثْمٌ [i. e. a sin, or crime,, &c.], (Zj, Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) or what is termed ذَنْبٌ. (Mṣb.)

Root: اثم - Entry: 4. Signification: A2

See also 1, last sentence but one.

5. ⇒ تأثّم

تأثّم He abstained from what is termed إِثْمٌ [i. e. sin, or crime,, &c.]; (T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ;) like تَحَرَّجَ meaning “he preserved himself from what is termed حَرَجٌ:” (Mṣb:) or he did a work, or deed, whereby he escaped from what is termed إِثْمٌ: (TA:) and he repented of what is so termed, (M, Ḳ,) and begged forgiveness of it; as though he removed the إِثْم itself by repentance and by begging forgiveness; or sought to do so by those two means. (M.) You say also, تأثّم مِنْ كَذَا He abstained from such a thing as a sin, or crime; syn. تَحَّنَثَ, q. v. (Ṣ, Ḳ, in art. حنث.)


إِثْمٌ [accord. to some, an inf. n.; see أَثِمَ: accord. to others, only a simple subst., signifying] A sin, a crime, a fault, an offence, or an act of disobedience, syn. ذَنْبٌ, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) for which one deserves punishment; differing from ذَنْبٌ inasmuch as this signifies both what is intentional and what is unintentional: (Kull:) or [so accord. to the M, but in the Ḳ “and,”] an unlawful deed: (M, Ḳ:) or a deed which retards from recompense: or, accord. to Fr, what is exclusive of the [punishment termed] حَدّ: accord. to Er-Rághib, it is a term of more general import than عُدَوانٌ: (TA:) مَأْثَمٌ↓ [which is originally an inf. n. of أَثِمَ] is syn. with إِثْمٌ; (T,* Mgh;) and so, too, is أَثَامٌ↓, (Mṣb,) orإِثَامٌ↓, signifying a deed retarding recompense: (TA:) the pl. of إِثْمٌ is آثَامٌ: (M:) and the pl. ofمَأْثَمٌ↓ is مَآثِمُ. (T.)

Root: اثم - Entry: إِثْمٌ Signification: A2

[Sometimes it is prefixed to a noun or pronoun denoting its object:]

Root: اثم - Entry: إِثْمٌ Signification: A3

[and sometimes it means † The punishment of a sin, &c.: see explanations of a passage in the Ḳur v. 32, voce بَآءَ.]

Root: اثم - Entry: إِثْمٌ Signification: A4

Wine: (Aboo-Bekr El-Iyádee, T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ:) sometimes used in this sense; (Ṣ;) but tropically; not properly: (IAmb:) I think, [says ISd,] because the drinking thereof is what is thus termed. (M.)

Root: اثم - Entry: إِثْمٌ Signification: A5

[And for a like reason,]Contention for stakes, or wagers, in a game of hazard; syn. قِمَارٌ; (M, Ḳ;) which is a man's destruction of his property. (M.) It is said in the Ḳur [ii. 216, respecting wine and the game called المَيْسِر], قُلْ فِهِيمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ [Say thou, In them both are great sin and means of profit to men]: and Th says, when they contended in a game of this kind, and won, they gave food and alms, and these were means of profit. (M.)


أَثَامٌ: see إِثْمٌ.

Root: اثم - Entry: أَثَامٌ Signification: A2

Also The requital, or recompense, of إِثّم [i. e. sin, or crime,, &c.]: (T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb:) so says Zj, (T, M,) and in like manner say Kh and Sb: (T:) or punishment (Yoo, Lth, T, M, Ḳ) thereof: (Lth, T, M:) andإِثَامٌ↓ andمَأْثَمٌ↓ signify the same; (M, Ḳ;) the latter like مَقْعَدٌ. (TA. [In the CK this is written مَأثِم.]) So in the Ḳur [xxv. 68], يَلْقَ أَثَامَا [He shall find a requital, or recompense, or a punishment, of sin]: (T, Ṣ, M:) in my opinion, [says ISd,] the correct meaning is, he shall find the punishment of آثَام [or sins]: but some say, the meaning is that which here follows. (M.)

Root: اثم - Entry: أَثَامٌ Signification: A3

A valley in Hell. (M, Ḳ.)


إِثَامٌ: see إِثْمٌ:

Root: اثم - Entry: إِثَامٌ Signification: A2



أَثِيمٌ: see آثِمٌ.

Root: اثم - Entry: أَثِيمٌ Signification: A2

Also A great, or habitual, liar; or one who lies much; and soأَثُومٌ↓. (Ḳ.) So in the Ḳur ii. 277: or it there signifies Burdened with إثْم [or sin,, &c.]. (TA.) In the Ḳur xliv. 44, it means, accord. to Fr, The unrighteous, or sinning; likeآثِمٌ↓: (T:) or the unbeliever: (TA:) or, accord. to Zj, in this instance, (M,) by the اثيم is meant Aboo-Jahl. (M, Ḳ.)

Root: اثم - Entry: أَثِيمٌ Dissociation: B

Also The commission of إِثْم [sin, or crime,, &c.,] much, or frequently; and soأَثِيمَةٌ↓. (M, Ḳ.)


أَثِيمَةٌ: see أَثِيمٌ.


أَثَامٌ: see آثِمٌ.


آثِمٌ Falling into what is termed إِثمٌ [i. e. a sin, or crime,, &c.]; (Ṣ, Mṣb,* Ḳ;*) [sinning; committing a sin, or crime;] doing what is unlawful: (Ḳ:) and in like manner, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) but having an intensive signification, (Mṣb,) أَثِيمٌ↓, andأَثُومٌ↓, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) andأَثَّامٌ↓: (M, Mṣb, Ḳ: [in the CK, erroneously, without teshdeed:]) the pl. of the first of these three is أُثَمَآءُ; that of the second, أُثُمٌ; and that of the third, أَثَّامُونَ. (M.) See also أَثِيمٌ.

Root: اثم - Entry: آثِمٌ Signification: A2

آثِمَةٌ, (Ṣ,) and آثِمَاتٌ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ, [in the CK, erroneously, اَثِماتٌ.]) A she-camel, (Ṣ,) and she-camels, slow, or tardy; (Ṣ, M, Ḳ;) weary, fatigued, or jaded. (Ḳ. [In the CK, we find مُعِيْباتٌ erroneously put for مُعْيِيَاتٌ.]) Some pronounce it with ت. (Ṣgh.) [In like manner,] مُؤَاثِمٌ↓ signifies That is slack, or slow, in pace, or going; اَلَّذِى يَكْذِبُ فِى السَّيْرِ. (Ṣgh, Ḳ. [In Golius's Lex., as from the Ḳ, اَلَّذِى يُكَذِّبُ السَّيْرَ. Both are correct, signifying the same.])


تَأْثَامٌ: see 1.


تَأْثِيمٌ: see 1.


مَأْثَمٌ: see إِثْمٌ, in two places:

Root: اثم - Entry: مَأْثَمٌ Signification: A2


مَأْثُومٌ [Reckoned to have sinned, or the like;] having a thing reckoned against him as an إِثْم: (Ṣ:) or requited for what is termed إِثْمٌ. (Fr, T.)


مُؤَاثِمٌ: see آثِمٌ.

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