Classical Arabic - English Dictionary

by Edward William Lane (1801-1876)

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اى ايا ايب


أَيَا a vocative particle, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) used in calling him who is near and him who is distant: [in the former case, like O: in the latter, like ho there, or soho, or holla:] you say, أَيَا زَيْدُ أَقْبِلْ [O Zeyd, advance: or ho there, or soho, or holla,, &c.]: (Ṣ:) or J is in error in saying this: it is used in calling to him who is distant: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) so say Ibn-El-Hájib, in the Káfiyeh, and El-Fakhr El-Járabardee; and the latter adds, or to him who is in a predicament like that of him who is distant, being sleeping or inadvertent; the person who calls thereby being eager for the person called to advance to him: (TA:) or not used in calling to him who is near: (Ḳ:) and ه is substituted for its hemzeh; (M, Ḳ;) so that one says, هَيَا. (M.) AZ says, I have heard them say, أَيَا إِيَاهُ أَقْبِلْ. (T in بَابُ الأَلِفَاتِ.) [Accord. to the TA, (art. ا,) one says also آيَا.]

إِيَا / إِيَاة / أَيَاة / أَيَآء

إِيَا الشَّمْسِ, and النَّبَاتِ; and إِيَاة, and أَيَاة,and أَيَآء: see art. اى.


إِيَّا (Ṣ, M, Ḳ, &c.) and أَيَّا, (M, Ḳ,) the latter form used by some, as related on the authority of Ḳṭr; (M;) accord. to some, (M,) a noun of vague signification, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) used metonymically for a noun in the accus. case, (M,) with which are connected all the affixed pronouns that denote the accus. case: you say إِيَّانا [Thee] and إِيَّاهُ [him] and إِيَّاىَ [me] (Ṣ, Ḳ) and إِيَّانَا [us,, &c.]: (Ṣ:) and the hemzeh is changed into و, so that you say وِيَّاكَ (Ṣ, M, Ḳ *) and وَيَّاكَ; (Ḳṭr, IJ, M, Ḳ;*) and sometimes into و, so that you say وِيَّاكَ [and app. وَيَّاكَ also; both of which are used by some of the Arabs in the present day, very commonly in Egypt, for وَإِيَّاكَ as meaning مَعَكَ; like as one says وَزَيْدًا, meaning مَعَ زَيْدٍ]: (Ḳ:) the ك and ه and ى [&c.] are put to show the object meant, in order that the person addressed may be known from the absent [&c.]; and have no place in the analysis of a sentence, like the ك in ذٰلِكَ and أَرَأَيْتَكَ: (Ṣ, M: in the former of which is added, and like the ا and ن in أَنْتَ:) and this is identical with the opinion of Akh: (M, TA:) thus ايّا is the noun, and what follows it is to denote allocution, [&c.,] and the two become as one thing; for nouns of vague signification are not prefixed to other nouns to govern them in the gen. case, nor are any of the pronouns, being themselves determinate. (Ṣ.) Ibn-Keysán says, (Ṣ, M,) some of the grammarians say that إِيَّاكَ, altogether, is a noun; and he adds, but some say (M) that the ك and ه, &c. are the nouns, and that ايّا is a support thereto, because they cannot stand by themselves, (Ṣ, M,) like the ك, &c. which occupy the latter place in يَضْرِبُكَ, &c.; so when the ك, &c. are put first, [as in إِيَّاكَ ضَرَبْتُ Thee I beat, or struck,] they are supported by ايا, and the whole becomes as one thing: (Ṣ:) and you may also say, ضَرَبْتُ إِيَّاىَ [I beat, or struck, me]; because it is not allowable to say, ضَرَبْتُنِى: (Ṣ as corrected by IB:) but you may not say, ضَرَبْتُ إِيَّاكَ [I beat, or struck, thee]; because you only require ايّاك when you cannot use the ك [alone]; though you may say, ضَرَبْتُكَ إِيّاكَ [I beat, or struck, thee, thee]; because the ك is made to be syntactically dependent upon the verb, so when you repeat it you require ايّا. (Ṣ.) In the saying of the poet, (Ṣ,) Dhu-l-Isba' El-'Adwánee, (TA,)

* كَأَنَّايَوْمَ قُرَّى إِنَّمَا نَقْتُلُ إِيَّانَا *

[As though we, on the day of Kurrà, only killed ourselves], he has separated it from the verb only because the Arabs do not make the action of the agent to fall upon the agent itself by the adjunction of the pronoun: they do not say, قَتَلْتُنِى, but only قَتَلْتُ نَفْسِى: so the poet has used ايّانا in the same manner as أَنْفُسَنَا. (Ṣ, TA.) Some of the grammarians say that إِيَّا is prefixed to what follows it, governing it in the gen. case; and adduce as an evidence thereof a saying which see below, commencing with إِذَا بَلَغَ الرَّجُلُ. (Ṣ.) Zj says that it is an explicit noun, [not a pronoun,] which is prefixed to all the pronouns, governing them in the gen. case; but only to pronouns; so that if one said, إِيَّا زَيْدٍ حَدَّثْتُ, it would be bad. (M.) Kh holds that it is a pronoun prefixed to the ك [&c.], governing it in the gen. case; (M, Ḳ;) and the like is related to have been the opinion of El-Mázinee: and Sb relates of Kh that he said, if any one were to say إِيَّاكَ نَفْسَكَ [Thee, thyself], I would not severely blame him, for this ك is [virtually] governed in the gen. case. (M.) But accord. to Akh, it is a simple, or uncompounded, pronoun, the ending of which becomes altered, as the endings of pronouns are wont to become, because of the varying of the numbers of the persons using them; (M, Ḳ; [in both of which the last of the word thus rendered is المضمرين; accord. to a copy of the M, المضمرين, i. e. المُضْمِرينَ; in a copy of the Ḳ, without any syll. signs; and in the CK, المُضْمَرَيْنِ; of which readings, I have followed that found in the M; supposing the meaning to be, that ايّا has different endings according as it is used by one speaking to another, or by one speaking of another, or by one speaking of himself, or to, or of, two or more, and the like;]) and the ك of ايَّاك is like the ك of ذٰلِكَ, inasmuch as it is an indication of allocution only, divested of the idea of its being a sign of the pronoun. (M.) Of all these varying opinions, IJ says that he has found none to be correct when investigated, except that of Akh; with whose opinion, that stated in the begining of this art. is identical [except as to the affix, which is there said to be a pronoun, not merely a particle of allocution]. (M, TA.) Zj, being asked to explain the meaning of the phrase إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ, [in the Ḳur i. 4,] answered, حَقِيتَتَكَ نَعْبُدُ [Thine essence we worship]; and said that it is derived from آيَةٌ, meaning “a sign by which a thing is known:” but IJ does not approve of this. (M.) [Respecting the phrase, فَإِذَا هُوَ إِيَّاهَا, in which ايّاها is used in the place of a noun in the nom. case, and which is therefore disallowed by Sb, see إِذَا.]

Root: ايا - Entry: إِيَّا.1 Signification: A2

It is also used for the purpose of cautioning, or putting one on his guard. (T, Ṣ.) You say, إِيَّاكَ وَالأَسَدَ [Beware thou of, or avoid thou, or remove thyself far from, the lion]: it is a substitute for a verb; as thou you said, بَاعِدْ: and you say also, هِيَّاكَ; like as you say أَرَاقَ and هَرَاقَ: (Ṣ:) [or ايّاك in this case is governed by a verb understood: for] Ibn-Keysán says, when you say, إِيَّاكَ وَزَيْدًا [Beware thou of, or avoid thou, or remove thyself far from, Zeyd], you caution him whom you address against Zeyd, and the verb governing the accus. case is not apparent: the meaning is, أُحَذِّرُكَ زَيْدًا [I caution thee against Zeyd]; as though you said, أُحَذِّرُكَ إِيَّاكَ وَزَيْدًا [I caution thee, thee with Zeyd]; or as though you said, بَاعِدْ نَفْسَكَ عَنْ زَيْدٍ وَبَاعِد زَيْدًا عَنْكَ [Remove thyself far from Zeyd, and remove Zeyd far from thee]; so that the verb governs the word signifying the person cautioned and that signifying him against whom that person is cautioned: (TA:) [and Az says,] when you say, إِيَّاكَ وَرُكُوبَ الفَاحِشَةِ, the verb is suppressed: it is as though you said, أُحَذِّرُكَ رُكُوبَ الفَاحِشَةِ [I caution thee against the committing of that which exceeds the bounds of rectitude]. (T.) Kh is related to have heard an Arab of the desert say, (T,* M, the latter on the authority of Sb.,) إِذَابَلَغَ الرَّجُلُ السِّتِّينَ فَإيَّاهُ وَإِيَّا الشَّوابّ [When the man attains to sixty years, I caution him against, or let him avoid, the young women]; (T, Ṣ, M;) prefixing ايّا to الشوابّ, and putting the latter in the gen. case: (Ṣ:) but accord. to Akh, it is not allowable to say [thus, or] إِيَّاكَ وَإِيَّا زَيْدٍ. (M.) Sometimes the و is suppressed, as in the saying of the poet,

* فَإِيَّاكَ إِيَّاكَ المِرَآءَ فَإِنَّهُ *
* إِلَى الشَّرِّ دَعَّآءٌ وَلِلشَّرِّ جَالِبُ *

[Then avoid thou, avoid thou obstinate disputation, for it is wont to invite to evil, and an attracter of evil]; meaning, إِيَّاكَ وَالمِرَآءَ: i. e., إِيَّاكَ وَأَنْ تُمَارِيَ. (TA.) You say [properly], إِيَّاكَ وَأَنْ تَفْعَلَ كَذَا [Beware thou of, or avoid thou, doing such a thing]: but [in strict propriety] you should not say, إِيَّاكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَ كَذَا, without و. (Ṣ.) See also art. اى.


أَيَايَا (Lth, T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ) and أَيَايَهْ, (M,) or يَايَا, (Ḳ,) and يَايَهْ, (M, Ḳ,) A cry by which camels are chidden. (Lth, T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ.) [See 2 in art. اى.]

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Lexicological and Grammatical Terms

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