Classical Arabic - English Dictionary

by Edward William Lane (1801-1876)

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امو ان انا

1. ⇒ أنّ

أَنَّ, aor. يَئِنُّ, inf. n. أَنِينٌ and أُنَانٌ (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ) and تَأْنَانٌ (Ṣ, Ḳ) and أَنٌّ, (M, Ḳ,) He moaned; or uttered a moan, or moaning, or prolonged voice of complaint; or said, Ah! syn.


تَأَوَّهَ; (M, Ḳ;) by reason of pain: (Ṣ, TA:) he complained by reason of disease or pain: (TA:) he uttered a cry or cries: (Mṣb:) said of a man. (Ṣ, Mṣb.)

Root: ان - Entry: تَأَوَّهَ Signification: A2

أَنِّتِ القَوْسُ, aor. تَئِنُّ, inf. n. أَنِينٌ, The bow made a gentle and prolonged sound. (AḤn, M.)

Root: ان - Entry: تَأَوَّهَ Dissociation: B

لَا أَفْعَلُهُ مَا أَنَّ فِى السَّمَآءِ نَجْمٌ means I will not do it as long as there is a star in the heaven: (Ṣ, M, Ḳ:) أَنَّ being here a dial. var. of عَنَّ. (Ṣ.) You say also, مَا أَنَّ فِى الفُرَاتِ قَطْرَةٌ As long as there is a drop in the Euphrates. (T, Ṣ.) And لَا أَفْعَلُهُ مَا أَنَّ فِى السَّمَآءٌ [I will not do it as long as there is rain in the heaven]. (Ṣ.) [It is said in the M that Lḥ mentions the last two sayings; but it is there indicated that he read قَطْرَةً and سَمَآءً: and] ISk mentions the saying, لَا أَفْعَلُهُ مَا أَنَّ فِى السَّمَآءِ نَجْمًا, (T, M,) and مَا عَنَّ فِى السَّمَآءِ نَجْمٌ; (T;) [in the former of which, أَنّ must be a particle (which see below); but it seems that it should rather be إِنَّ, in this case, as ISd thinks; for he says,] I know not for what reason انّ is here with fet-ḥ, unless a verb be understood before it, as ثَبَتَ or وُجِدَ: [and he adds,] Lh mentions مَا أَنَّ ذلِكَ الجَبَلَ مَكَانَهُ [as long as that mountain is in its place]: and مَا أَنَّ حِرَآءً مَكَانَهُ [as long as Mount Hirà is in its place]: but he does not explain these sayings. (M.)


أَنٌ is a pronoun, denoting the speaker, [I, masc. and fem.,] in the language of some of the Arabs: they say, أَنْ فَعَلْتُ [I did], with the ن quiescent: but most of them pronounce it [أَنَ↓] with fet-ḥ when conjoined with a following word; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) saying, أَنَ فَعَلْتُ: (TA:) and [أَنَا↓] with ا in a case of pause: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) and some pronounce it with ا also when it is conjoined with a following word; saying, أَنَا فَعَلْتُ; [as we generally find it written in books;] but this is of a bad dialect: (TA:) [this last assertion, however, requires consideration; for the dial. here said to be bad is that of Temeem, accord. to what here follows:] the Basrees hold that the pronoun consists of the ء and the ن, and that the [final] ا is redundant, because it is suppressed in a case of conjunction with a following word; but the Koofees hold that the pronoun is composed of all the three letters, because the ا is preserved in a case of conjunction with a following word in the dial. of Temeem. (Marginal note in a copy of the Mughnee.) [Accord. to Az,] it is best to say أَنَا↓ in a case of pause; andأَنَ↓ in a case of conjunction with a following word, as in أَنَ فَعَلْتُ ذَاكَ [I did that]; but some of the Arabs say,أَنَا↓ فَعَلْتُ ذَاكَ; and some make the ن quiescent in a case of this kind, though this is rare, saying, أَنْ قُلْتُ ذَاكَ [I said that]; and Kudá'ah prolong the former ا, saying, آنَ↓ قُلْتُهُ. (T.) [Accord. to J,]أَنَا↓ is a pronoun denoting the speaker alone, and is made to end invariably with fet-ḥ to distinguish it from the particle أَنْ which renders the aor. mansoob; the final ا being for the purpose of showing what is the vowel in a case of pause; but when it occurs in the middle [or beginning] of a sentence, it is dropped, except in a bad dialect. (Ṣ.) [Accord. to ISd,] أَنَ↓ is a noun denoting the speaker; and in a case of pause, you add ا at the end, [sayingأَنَا↓,] to denote quiescence; (M;) [or] it is better to do this, though it is not always done: (TA:) but it is said, on the authority of Ḳṭr, that there are five dial. vars. of this word; namely, أَنَ↓ فَعَلْتُ, andأَنَا↓, andآنَ↓, and أَنٌ, andأَنَهٌ↓, all mentioned by IJ; but there is some weakness in this: IJ says that the ه in أَنَهٌ↓ may be a substitute for the ا in أَنَا, because the latter is the more usual, and the former is rare; or it may be added to show what is the vowel, like the ه, and be like the ه in كِتَابِيَهْ and حِسَابِيَهٌ. (M.) For the dual, as well as the pl., only نَحْنُ is used. (Az, TA.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Signification: A2

It is also a pronoun denoting the person addressed, or spoken to, by assuming the form أَنْتَ↓ [Thou, masc.]; ت being added to it as the sign of the person addressed, (Ṣ, M, Mughnee, Ḳ,) and أَنْ being the pronoun, (M, Mughnee, Ḳ,) accord. to the general opinion; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) the two becoming as one; not that one is prefixed to the other as governing it in the gen. case: (Ṣ:) and soأَنْتِ↓, (Ṣ, M, Mughnee, Ḳ,) addressed to the female: (Ṣ, M:) andأَنْتُمَا↓, (M, Mughnee, Ḳ,) addressed to two; not a regular dual, for were it so it would be أَنْتَان; but like كُمَا in ضَرَبْتُكُمَا: (M:) andأَنْتُمٌ↓ andأَنْتُنَّ↓, (Ṣ, Mughnee, Ḳ,) which are [respectively] the masc. and fem. pls. (TA.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Signification: A3

To each of these the ك of comparison is sometimes prefixed; so that you say, أَنْتَ كَأَنَا↓ [Thou art like me, or as I], andأَنَا كَأَنْتَ↓ [or أَنَ كَأَنْتَ I am like thee, or as thou]; as is related on the authority of the Arabs; for though the ك of comparison is not prefixed to the [affixed] pronoun, and you say, أَنْتَ كَزَيْدٍ but not أَنْتَ كِى, yet the separate pronoun is regarded by them as being in the same predicament as the noun; and therefore the prefixing it to the latter kind of pronoun is approved. (Ṣ.) It is said in the Book of لَيْسَ, by IKh, that there is no such phrase, in the language of the Arabs, as أَنْتَ كِى, nor as أَنَا كَكَ, except in two forged verses; wherefore Sb says that the Arabs, by saying أَنْتَ مِثْلِى and أَنَا مثْلُكَ, have no need of saying أَنْتَ كِى and أَنَا كَكَ: and the two verses are these:

* وَلَوْلَا البَلَآءُ لَكَانُوا كَنَا *
* فَلَوْلَا الحَيَآإُ لَكُنَّا كَهُمٌ *

[And but for the sense of shame, we had been like them, or as they: and but for trial, or affliction, they had been like us, or as we]: and

* إِنْ تَكُنْ كِى فِإِنَّنِى كَكَ فِيهَا *
* إِنَّنَا فِى المَلَامِ مُصْطَحِبَانِ *

[If thou art like me, or as I, verily I am like thee, or as thou, in respect of her, or it, or them: verily we, in respect of blame, are companions]. (TA.) Az mentions his having heard some of the Benoo-Suleym say, كَمَا أَنْتَنِى, [the latter word being a compound of the pronoun أَنْتَ, regularly written separately, and the affixed pronoun نِى,] meaning Wait thou for me in thy place. (TA.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Dissociation: B

It is also a particle: and as such, it is - First, a particle of the kind called مَصْدَرِىٌّ, rendering the aor. mansoob: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) i. e., (TA,) it combines with a verb [in this case] in the future [or aor.] tense, following it, to form an equivalent to an inf. n., and renders it mansoob: (Ṣ, TA:) you say, أُرِيدُ أَنْ تَقُومَ [I desire that thou stand, or that thou wouldst stand, or that thou mayest stand]; meaning أُرِيدُ قِيَامَكَ [I desire thy standing]. (Ṣ.) It occurs in two places: first, in that of the inchoative, or in the beginning of a phrase, so that it is in the place of a nom. case; as in the saying [in the Ḳur ii. 180], وَأَنْ تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ [And that ye fast is better for you]; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) i. e. صِيَامُكُمْ [your fasting]. (TA.) And, secondly, after a word denoting a meaning which is not that of certainty: and thus it is the place of a nom. case; as in the saying [in the Ḳur lvii. 15], أَلَمْ يَأَنِ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنٌ تَخْشَعَ قُلُوبُهُمْ [Hath not the time that their hearts should become submissive, i. e. the time of their hearts' becoming submissive, yet come unto those who have believed?]: and in the place of an accus. case; as in the saying [in the Ḳur x. 38], وَمَا كَانَ هذَا القُرْآنُ أَنْ يُفْتَرَء [And this Ḳur-án is not such that it might be forged; i. e., افُتِرِآءٌ; so in Bḍ and Jel; and so in a marginal note to a copy of the Mughnee, where is added, meaning مُفْتَرًى forged]: and in the place of a gen. case; as in the saying [in the Ḳur lxiii. 10], مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَأْتِىَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ [Before that death come unto any one of you; i. e. before death's coming unto any one of you]. (Mughnee, Ḳ.) Sometimes it makes the aor. to be of the mejzoom form, (Mughnee, Ḳ,) as some of the Koofees and AO have mentioned, and as Lḥ has stated on the authority of certain of the Benoo-Sabbáh of Dabbeh; (Mughnee;) as in this verse:

* إِذَا مَا غَدَوْنَا قَالَ وِلْدَانُ أَهْلِنَا *
* تَعَالوْغا إِلَى أَنْ يَأْتِنَا الصَّيْدُ نَحْطِبِ *

[When we went away in the morning, the youths of our family, or people, said, Come ye, until that the chase come to us, (i. e. until the coming of the chase to us,) let us collect firewood]. (Mughnee, Ḳ.) And sometimes it is followed by an aor. of the marfooa form; as in the saying [in the Ḳur ii. 233], accord. to the reading of Ibn-Moheysin, لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُتِمُّ الرَّضَاعَةَ [For him who desireth that he may complete the time of sucking; i. e. the completing thereof]; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) but this is anomalous, (I’Aḳ p. 101, and TA,) or أَنْ is here a contraction of أَنَّ [for أَنَّهُ]: (I’Aḳ:) and in the saying of the poet,

* أَنْ تَقْرَآنِ عَلَى أَسْمَآءِ وَيْحَكُمَا *
* مِنِّى السَّلَامَ وَأَنْ لَا تُخْبِرَا أَحَدَا *

[That ye two convey, or communicate, to Asmà, (mercy on you! or woe to you!) from me, salutation, and that ye inform not any one]; but the Koofees assert that أَنٌ is here [in the beginning of the verse] a contraction of أَنَّ, and anomalously conjoined with the verb; whereas the Basrees correctly say that it is أَنٌ which renders the aor. mansoob, but is deprived of government by its being made to accord with its co-ordinate مَا, termed مَصْدَرِيَّة; (Mughnee;) or, as IJ says, on the authority of Aboo-ʼAlee, أَنٌ is here used by poetic licence for أَنَّكُمَا; and the opinion of the Baghdádees [and Basrees], that it is likened to مَا, and therefore without government, is improbable, because أَنْ is not conjoined with a verb in the present tense, but only with the preterite and the future. (M.) When it is suppressed, the aor. may be either mansoob or marfooa; but the latter is the better; as in the saying in the Ḳur [xxxix. 64], أَفَغَيْرَ ٱللّٰهِ تَأْمُرُونِّى أَعْبُدُ [Other than God do ye bid me worship?]. (Ṣ.) If it occurs immediately before a preterite, it combines with it to form an equivalent to an inf. n. relating to past time; being in this case without government: you say, أَعْجَيَنِيأَنْ قُمْتَ [It pleased me that thou stoodest]; meaning thy standing that is past pleased me: (Ṣ:) and thus it is used in the saying [in the Ḳur xxviii. 82], لَوْلَا أَنٌ مَنَّ ٱللّٰهُ عَلَيْنَا [Were it not for that God conferred favour upon us; i. e., for God's having conferred favour upon us]. (Mughnee.) It is also conjoined with an imperative; as in the phrase mentioned by Sb, كَتَبْتُ إِلَيهِ بِأَنة قُمٌ [I wrote to him, Stand; i. e. I wrote to him the command to stand]; which shows that AḤei is wrong in asserting that whenever it is conjoined with an imperative it is an explicative [in the sense of أَيٌ], and that in this particular instance the ب may be redundant, which it cannot here be, because, whether redundant or not, it is not put immediately before anything but a noun or what may be rendered by a noun. (Mughnee.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Signification: B2

Secondly, it is a contraction of أَنَّ; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) and occurs after a verb denoting certainty, or one used in a manner similar to that of such a verb: (Mughnee:) so in the saying [in the Ḳur lxxiii. 20], عَلِمَ أَنٌ سَيَكُونُ مِنْكُمٌ مَرْضَى [He knoweth that (the case will be this:) there will be among you some diseased; the affixed pronoun هُ, meaning اشَّأْنَ, being understood after أَنْ, which therefore stands for أَنَّهُ, i. e. أَنَّ الشَّأْنَ]: (Mughnee, Ḳ:*) and in the phrase بَلَغَنِى أَنْ قَدْ كَانَ كَذَا وَكَذَا [It has come to my knowledge, or been related to me, or been told to me, or it came to my knowledge,, &c., that (the case is this:) such and such things have been]; a phase of this kind, in which أَنْ occurs with a verb, not being approved without قَدْ, unless you say, بَلَغَنِى أَنَّهُ كَانَ كَذَا وَكَذَا: (Lth, T:)[for] when the contracted أَنْ has for its predicate a verbal proposition, of which the verb is neither imperfectly inflected, like لَيْسَ and عَسَى, nor expressive of a prayer or an imprecation, it is separated from the verb, according to the more approved usage, by قَدْ, or the prefix سَ, or سَوْفَ, or a negative, as لَا, &c., or لَوْ: (I’Aḳ pp. 100 and 101:) but when its predicate is a nominal proposition, it requires not a separation; so that you say, عَلِمْتُ أَنْ زَيْدٌ قَائِمٌ [I knew that (the case was this:) Zeyd was standing]; (I’Aḳ p. 100;) and بَلَغَنِى أَنْ زَيدٌ خَارِجٌ [It has come to my knowledge, or been related to me, or been told to me,, &c., that (the case is this:) Zeyd is going, or coming, out, or forth]; (TA;) except in the case of a negation, as in the saying in the Ḳur [xi. 17], وأَنْ لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا هُوَ [And that (the case is this:) there is no deity but He]. (I’Aḳ p. 100.) Thus used, it is originally triliteral, and is also what is termed مَصْدَرِيَّة; [عَلِمَ أَنْ, in the first of the exs. above, for instance, meaning عَلِمَ أَنَّهُ, i. e. عَلِمَ أَنَّ الشَّأْنَ, which is equivalent to عَلِمَ كَوْنَ الشَّأْنِ;] and governs the subject in the accus. case, and the predicate in the nom. case: and its subject must be a pronoun, suppressed, [as in the exs. given above, where it means الشَّأْنِ, and in a verse cited before, commencing أَنْ تَقْرَآنِ, accord. to A'boo-ʼAlee,] or expressed; the latter, accord. to the more correct opinion, being allowable only by poetic license: and its predicate must be a proposition, unless the subject is expressed, in which case it may be either a single word or a proposition; both of which kinds occur in the following saying [of a poet]:

* بِأَنْكَ رَبِيعٌ وغَيْثٌ مَرِيعٌ *
* وَأَنْكَ هُنَاكَ تَكُونَ الثِّمَالَا *

[he is speaking of persons coming as guests to him whom he addresses, when their provisions are exhausted, and the horizon is dust-coloured, and the north wind is blowing, (as is shown by the citation of the verse immediately preceding, in the T,) and he says, They know that thou art like rain that produces spring-herbage, and like plenteous rain, and that thou, there, art the aider and the manager of the affairs of people]. (Mughnee. [In the T, for رَبِيعٌ, I find الَّربِيعُ; and for وَأَنْكَ, I there find وَقِدْمًا: but the reading in the Mughnee is that which is the more known.]) [J says,] أَنْ is sometimes a contraction of أَنَّ and does not govern [anything]: you say, بَلَغَنِى أَنٌ زَيْدٌ خَارِجٌ [explained above]; and it is said in the Ḳur [vii. 41], وَنُودُوا أَنْ تِلْكُمُ الجَنَّةُ [And it shall be proclaimed to them that (the case is this:) that is Paradise]: (Ṣ:) [here, however, أَنة is regarded by some as an explicative, as will be seen below:] but in saying this, J means that it does not govern as to the letter; for virtually it does govern; its subject being meant to be understood; the virtual meaning being أَنَّهُ تِلْكُمُ الجَنَّةُ. (IB.) [In another place, J says,] You may make the contracted أَنْ to govern or not, as you please. (Ṣ.) Aboo-Tálib the Grammarian mentions an assertion that the Arabs make it to govern; as in the saying [of a poet, describing a beautiful bosom],

* كَأَنْ ثَذْيَيْهِ حُقَّانِ *

[As though its two breasts were two small round boxes]: but [the reading commonly known is

* كَأَنْ ثَدْيَاهُ حُقَّانِ *

(this latter reading is given in De Sacy's Anthol. Gram. Ar. p. 104 of the Ar. text; and both are given in the Ṣ;) كَأَنْ here meaning كَأَنَّهُ; and] Fr says, We have not heard the Arabs use the contracted form and make it to govern except with a pronoun, in which case the desinential syntax is not apparent. (T.) The author of the Ḳ says in the B that you say, عَلِمْتُ أَنْ زيْدًا لَمُنْطَلِقٌ [I knew that Zeyd was indeed going away], with ل when it is made to govern; and عَلِمْتُ أَنْ زَيْدٌ مُنْطَلِقٌ [I knew that (the case was this:) Zeyd was going away], without ل when it is made to have no government. (TA. [But in the latter ex. it governs the subject, which is understood, as in other exs. before given.]) [See an ex. in a verse ending with the phrase وَكَأَنْ قَدِ cited voce قَد, where كَأَنْ is for كَأَنَّهُ, meaning كَأَنَّ الشّأنَ, and a verb is understood after قد. And see also أَنَّ, below.]

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Signification: B3

Thirdly, it is an explicative, (Mughnee, Ḳ,) meaning أَيْ (Ṣ, M, and so in some copies of the Ḳ,) or [rather] used in the manner of أَيْ; (Mughnee, and so in some copies of the Ḳ;) [meaning قَائِلًا, or قَائِلِينَ; or يَقُولُ, or يَقُولُونَ; or some other form of the verb قَالَ; i. e. Saying;, &c.;] as in the saying [in the Ḳur xxiii. 27], فَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِ أَنِ اصْنَعِ الْقُلْكَ [And we revealed, or spake by revelation, unto him, saying, Make thou the ark]; (Mughnee, Ḳ) and [in the Ḳur vii. 41,]وَنُودُوا أَنْ تِلْكُمُ الْجَنَّةُ [And it shall be proclaimed to them, being said, That is Paradise]; or in these two instances it may be regarded as what is termed مَصْدَرِيَّة, by supposing the preposition [بِ] understood before it, so that in the former instance it is the biliteral, because it is put before the imperative, and in the second it is the contraction of أَنَّ because it is put before a nominal proposition; (Mughnee;) and [in the Ḳur xxxviii. 5,] وَانْطَلَقَ الْمَلَأُ مِنْهُمْ أَنِ امْشُوا(Ṣ, M, Mughnee) i. e. [And the chief persons of them] broke forth, or launched forth, with their tongues, or in speech, [saying,] Go ye on, or continue ye, in your course of action, &c. (Mughnee.) For this usage of أَنْ certain conditions are requisite: first, that it be preceded by a proposition: secondly, that it be followed by a proposition; so that you may not say, ذَكَرْتُ عَسْجَدًا أَنْ ذَهَبًا, but you must say أَىٌ in this case, or must omit the explicative: thirdly, that the preceding proposition convey the meaning of القَوْلُ, as in the exs. above; in the last of which, انطلق has the meaning assigned to it above; not that of walking or going away: fourthly, that there be not in the preceding proposition the letters of القَوْلُ; so that one may not say, قُلْتُ لَهُ أَنِ افْعَلْ; or, if there be in it those letters, that the word which they compose shall be interpreted by another word; as in the saying, in the Ḳur [v, 117], مَا قُلْتُ لَهُمْ إِلَّا مَا أَمَرْتَنِى بِهِ أَنِ اعْبُدُوا ٱللّٰهَ which may mean, as Z says, I have not commanded them [aught save that which Thou commandedst me, saying, Worship ye God]; (Mughnee;) in which instance Fr says that it is an explicative: (T:) fifthly, that there be not a preposition immediately before it; for if you say, كَتَبْتُ إِلَيْهِ بِأَنِ افْعَلْ كَذَا, it is what is termed مَصْدَرِيَّة [as we have before shown]. (Mughnee.) When it may be regarded as an explicative and is followed by an aor. with لا as in أَشَرْتُ إِلَيْهِ أَنْ لَا تَفْعَل كَذَا, it may be marfooa, [namely, the aor.,] on the supposition that لا is a negative; or mejzoom, on the supposition that it is a prohibitive; and in both cases ان is an explicative; [so that the meaning is, I made a sign to him, as though saying, Thou wilt not do such a thing, in the former case; or, in the latter, Do not thou such a thing;] or mansoob, on the supposition that لا is a negative and that ان is what is termed مَصْدَرِيَّة: but if لا is wanting, it may not be mejzoom, but may be marfooa [if we use ان as an explicative] or mansoob [if ان be what is termed مَصْدَرِيَّة]. (Mughnee.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Signification: B4

Fourthly, it is redundant, as a corroborative, (Mughnee, Ḳ,) like whatever else is redundant: and thus it is in four cases: one of these, which is the most common, being when it occurs after لَمَّا denoting time; [and this is mentioned in the M;] as in the saying [in the Ḳur xxix. 32], وَلمَّا أَنْ جَآءَ تْ رُسُلُنَا لُوطًا [And when our apostles came to Lot]: (Mughnee:) [or,] accord. to J, (TA,) it is sometimes a connective to لَمَّا; as in the saying in the Ḳur [xii. 96], فَلَمَّا أَنْ جَآءَ الْبَشِيرُ [And when that (like as we say, “now that,”) the announcer of good tidings came]: and sometimes it is redundant; as in the saying in the Ḳur [viii. 34], وَمَا لَهُمْ أَنْ لَا يُعَذِبَهُمُ ٱللّٰهُ [as though it might be rendered But what reason have they, God should not punish them?]: (Ṣ, TA:) but IB says that the connective is redundant; and [that ان is not redundant in the latter instance, for] if it were redundant in this verse of the Ḳur it would not render the [aor.] verb mansoob. (TA. [The author of the Mughnee, like IB, disallows that ان is redundant in a case of this kind, which Kh asserts it to be; and says that فِى is understood before it.]) The second case is when it occurs between لَوٌ and a verb signifying swearing, the latter being expressed; as in this verse:

* فَأُقْسِمُ أَنْ لَوِ ٱلْتَقَيْنَا وَأَنْتُمُ *
* لَكَانَ لَنَا يَوْمٌ مِنَ الشَّرِّ مُظْلِمُ *

[And I swear, had we and you met, there had been to us a dark day of evil]: and when that verb is omitted; as in the following ex.:

* أَمَا وَٱللّٰهِ أَنْ لَوْ كُنْتَ حُرِّا *
* وَمَا بِٱلْحُرِّ أَنْتَ وَلَا العَتِيقِ *

[Verily, or now surely, by God, if thou wert freeborn; but thou art not the freeborn nor the emancipated]: so say Sb and others: Ibn-'Os- foor holds it to be a particle employed to connect the complement of the oath with the oath; but this is rendered improbable by the fact that it is in most cases omitted, and such particles are not. (Mughnee.) The third case, which is extr., is when it occurs between the ك [of comparison] and the noun governed by it in the genitive case; as in the saying,

* وَيَوْمًا تُوَافِينَا بِوَجْهٍ مُقَسَّمٍ *
* كَأَنٌ ظَبْيَةٍ تَعْطُو إِلَى وَارِقِ السَّلَمْ *

[And on a day thou comest to us with a beautiful face, like a doe-gazelle raising her head towards the goodly green-leaved tree of the selem kind], accord. to the reading of him who makes طبيةْ to be governed in the genitive case [instead of the accus. or the nom.; for if we read it in the accus. or the nom., أَنْ is a contraction of أَنَّ; in the former case, ظبية being its subject, and its predicate being suppressed; and in the latter case, the meaning being كَأَنَّهَا ظَبْيَةٌ, so that the subject of ان is suppressed]. (Mughnee.) The fourth case is when it occurs after إِذَا; as in the following ex.:

* فَأُمْهلُهُ حَتَّى إذَا أَنْ كَأَنَّهُ *
* مُعَاطِى يَدٍ فِى لُجَّةِ المَآءِ غَامِرُ *

[And I leave him alone until when he is as though he were a giver of a hand to be laid hold upon, in the fathomless deep of the water immerged]. (Mughnee.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Signification: B5

[Fifthly,] among other meanings which have been assigned to it, (Mughnee,) it has a conditional meaning, like إِنٌ: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) so the Koofees hold; and it seems to be most probably correct, for several reasons: first, because both these forms occur, accord. to different readings, in several instances, in one passage of the Ḳur; as in [ii. 282,] أَنْ تَضِلٌّ إِحْدَاهُمَا [If one of them twain (namely, women,) err];, &c.: secondly, because [the prefix] فَ often occurs after it; as in a verse commencing with أَبَا خُرَاشَةَ [as cited voce أَمَّا, accord. to some who hold that أمَّا in that verse is a compound of the conditional أَنْ and the redundant مَا; and as in the Ḳur ii. 282, where the words quoted above are immediately followed by فَتُذَكِّرَ إِحْدَاهُمَا ٱلْأُخْرَى]: thirdly, because it is conjoined with إِنٌ [which forms a part of the compound إِكَّا] in this ex.:

* إِمَّا أَقَمْتَ وَأَمَّا أَنْتَ مُرْتَحِلًا *
* فَٱللّٰهُ يَكْلَأُ مَا تَأْتِى وَمَا تَذَرُ *

[If thou remain, and if thou be going away (أَمَّا meaning أَنْ كُنْتَ, as syn. with إِنْ كُنْتَ), may God guard thee (يَكْلَأُ being marfooa because of the ف) as long as thou doest and as long as thou leavest undone]: thus related, with kesr to the former ان [in إِنَّا] and with fet-ḥ to the latter [in أَمَّا]. (Mughnee.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Signification: B6

[Sixthly,] it is a negative, like إِنْ: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) so, as some say, in [the Ḳur iii. 66,] أَنع يُؤْتَى أَحَدٌ مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيتُمْ [meaning accord. to them Not any one is given the like of that scripture which ye have been given]: but it is said [by others] that the meaning is, [taken with what precedes it,] And believe not ye that (بِأَنْ) any one is given the like of that scripture which ye have been given, except it be given to him who followeth your religion; and that the phrase “say thou, Verily the direction is the direction of God,” is parenthetic. (Mughnee.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Signification: B7

[Seventhly,] it is syn. with إِذْ, (AZ, T, Mughnee, Ḳ, [in Freytag's Lex., from the Ḳ, إِذْ قِيلَ, but قيل in the Ḳ relates to what there follows,]) as some say, in [the Ḳur l. 2,] بَلْ عَجِبُوا أَنٌ جَآءَهُمْ مُنْذِرٌمِنْهُمْ [Verily they wonder because a warner from among themselves hath come unto them]; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) and in other instances; but correctly, in all these instances, ان is what is termed مَصْدَرِيَّة, and لِ denoting cause is understood before it. (Mughnee.) [See also أَمَّا and إِمَّا.]

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Signification: B8

[Eighthly,] it is syn. with لِئَلّا, accord. to some, in [the Ḳur iv. last verse,] يُبَيِّنُ ٱللّٰهُأَنْ تَضِلُّوا [God explaineth to you (the ordinances of your religion, Jel), lest ye should err, or in order that ye may not err]; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) and in the saying,

* نَزَلْتُمْ مَنْزِلَ الأَضْيَافِ مِنَّا *
* فَعَجَّلْنَا القِرَى أَنْ تَشْتِمُونَا *

[Ye became, or have become, in the condition of our guests; so we hastened, or have hastened, the entertainment, lest ye should revile us, or in order that ye should not revile us]: (Mughnee:) but correctly, in such a case [likewise], ان is what is termed مَصْدَرِيَّة, and the original wording is كَرَاهَةَ أَنْ تَضِلُّوا [from a motive of dislike that ye should err], (Mughnee, Ḳ,) and مَخَافَةَ أَنْ تَشْتِمُونَا [from a motive of fear that ye should revile us]: so say the Basrees: some say, extravagantly, that ل is meant to be understood before it, and الَّذِى after it. (Mughnee.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Signification: B9

[Ninthly,] it occurs in the sense of الَّذِى; as in the saying, زَيْدٌ أَعْقَلُ مِنٌ أَنْ يَكْذِب [Zeyd is more reasonable than he who lies; which is equivalent to saying, Zeyd is too reasonable to lie: but respecting its usage in a phrase of this kind, and respecting the form of the aor. after it in such a case, see مِنْ]. (Kull p. 78.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنْ Signification: B10

By a peculiarity of pronunciation termed عَنْعَتَةٌ, the tribe of Temeem say عَنْ instead of أَنٌ. (M.)


إِنٌ is used in various ways: first, as a conditional particle, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Mughnee, Ḳ,) denoting the happening of the second of two events in consequence of the happening of the first, (Ṣ, Mṣb,*) whether the second be immediate or deferred, and whether the condition be affirmative or negative; (Mṣb;) [and as such it is followed by a mejzoom aor., or by a pret. having the signification of an aor.;] as in the saying, [إِنْ تَفْعَلٌ أفْعَلٌ If thou do such a thing, I will do it; and] إِنْ تَأْتِنِى آتِكَ [If thou come to me, I will come to thee]; and إِنٌ جِئْتَنِى أَكْرَمْتُكَ [If thou come to me, I will treat thee with honour]; (Ṣ;) and إِنْ فَعَلْتَ فَعَلْتُ [If thou do, I will do] for which the tribe of Teiyi say, as IJ relates on the authority of Ḳṭr, هِنْ فَعَلْتَ فَعَلْتُ; (M;) and إِنْ دَخَلْت الدَّارَ أَوٌ [If thou stand, I will stand]; and إِنْ دَخَلْتِ الدَّارَ أَوْ لَمْ تَدْخُلِى الدَّارض فَأَنْتِ طَالقٌ [If thou enter the house, or if thou enter not the house, thou shalt be divorced]; (Mṣb;) and [in the Ḳur viii. 39,] إِنْ يَنْتَهُوا يُغْفَرٌ لَهُمْ مَا قَد سَلَفَ [If they desist, what hath already past shall be forgiven them]; and [in verse 19 of the same ch.,] وَإِنْ تَعُودُوا نَعُدْ [But if ye return to attacking the Apostle, we will return to assisting him]. (Mughnee, Ḳ.) [On the difference between it and إِذا, see the latter.] When either it or إِذَا is immediately followed by a noun in the nom. case, the said noun is governed in that case by a verb necessarily suppressed, of which it is the agent; as in the saying, in the Ḳur [ix. 6], وَإِنْ أَحَدٌ مِنَ ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ ٱستَجَارَكَ; the complete phrase being وَإِنِ اسْتَجَارَكَ أَحَدٌ مِنَ ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ ٱسْتَجَارَكَ [And if any one of the believers in a plurality of gods demand protection of thee, (if) he demand protection of thee]: so accord. to the generality of the grammarians. (I’Aḳ p. 123.) Sometimes it is conjoined with the negative لَا, and the ignorant may imagine it to be the exceptive إِلَّا; as in [the saying in the Ḳur ix. 40,] إِلَّا تَنْصُرُوهُ فَقَد نَصَرَهُ ٱللّٰهُ [If ye will not aid him, certainly God did aid him]; and [in the next preceding verse,] إِلَّا تَنْفِرُوا يُعَذِّبْكُمْ [If ye will not go forth to war, He will punish you]. (Mughnee, Ḳ.*) It is sometimes used to denote one's feigning himself ignorant; as when you say to one who asks, “Is thy child in the house?” and thou hast knowledge thereof, إِنْ كَانَ فِى الدَّارِ أَعْلَمْتُكَ بِهِ [If he be in the house, I will inform thee thereof]. (Mṣb.) And to denote one's putting the knowing in the predicament of the ignorant, in order to incite to the doing or continuing an action; as when you say, إِنٌ كُنْتَ ٱبُنِى فَأَطِعْنِى [If thou be my son, obey me]; as though you said, “Thou knowest that thou art my son, and it is incumbent on the son to obey the father, and thou art not obedient; therefore do what thou art commanded to do.” (Mṣb.) And sometimes it is divested of the conditional meaning, and becomes syn. with لَو; as in the saying, صَلِّ وَإِنٌ عَجَزْتَ عَنِ القِيَام [Pray thou though thou be unable to stand;] i. e. pray thou whether thou be able to stand or unable to do so; and in the saying, أَكْرِمٌ زِيْدًا وَإِنْ قَعَدَ i. e. [Treat thou Zeyd with honour] though he be sitting; or, whether he sit or not. (Mṣb.) [إِمَّا as a compound of the conditional إِنٌ and the redundant مَا, see in an art. of which اما is the heading.]

Root: ان - Entry: إِنْ Signification: A2

[Secondly,] it is a negative, (Ṣ, Mughnee, Ḳ,) syn. with مَا; (Ṣ;) and is put before a nominal proposition; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) as in the saying [in the Ḳur lxvii. 20], إِنِ ٱلْكَافِرُونَ إِلَّا فِى غُرُورٍ [The unbelievers are not in aught save in a deception]; (Ṣ, Mughnee, Ḳ;) and before a verbal proposition; as in [the Ḳur ix. 108,] إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا ٱلْحُسْنَى [We desired not, or meant not, aught save that which is best]. (Mughnee, Ḳ.) The assertion of some, that the negative إِنٌ does not occur except where it is followed by إِلَّا, as in the instances cited above, or by لَمَّا, with teshdeed, which is syn. therewith, as, accord. to a reading of some of the Seven [Readers], in the saying [in the Ḳur lxxxvi. 4], إِنْ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ لَمَّا عَلَيْهَا حَافِظٌ, i. e., مَا كُلُّ نَفْسٍ إِلَّا عَلَيْهَا حَافِظٌ [There is not any soul but over it is a guardian], is refuted by the sayings in the Ḳur [x. 69 and lxxii. 26], إِنْ عِندَكُمْ مِنْ سُلْطَانٍ بِهٰذَا [meaning, accord. to the Jel., Ye have no proof of this that ye say], and إِنْ أَدْرِيأَقَرِيبٌ مَا تُوعَدُونَ [I know not whether that with which ye are threatened be nigh]. (Mughnee, Ḳ.*) The conditional and the negative both occur in the saying in the Ḳur [xxxv. 39], وَلَئِنْ زَالَتَا إِنْ أَمْسَكَهُمَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ [And I swear that, if they should quit their place, not any one should withhold them after Him]: the former is conditional; and the latter is negative, and is [part of] the complement of the oath which is denoted by the ل prefixed to the former; the complement of the condition being necessarily suppressed. (Mughnee.) When it is put before a nominal proposition, it has no government, accord. to Sb and Fr; but Ks and Mbr allow its governing in the manner of لَيْسَ; and Saʼeed Ibn-Jubeyr reads, [in the Ḳur vii. 193,] إِنِ ٱلَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ ٱللّٰهِ عِبَادًا أَمْثَالَكُمٌ [Those whom ye invoke beside God, or others than God, are not men like you]: also, the people of El-ʼÁliyeh have been heard to say, إِنٌ أَحَدٌ خَيْرًامِنْ أَحدٍ إِلَّا بِالعَافِيَةِ [Any one is not better than any other one, except by means of health, or soundness]; and إِنْ ذٰلِكَ نَافِعَكَ وَلَا ضَارَّكَ [That is not profitable to thee nor injurious to thee]: as an ex. of its occurrence without government, which is mostly the case, the saying of some,إِنَّ↓ قَائمٌ may be explained as originally إِنٌ أَنَا قَائِمٌ [I am not standing]; the أ of أَنَا being elided for no reason in itself, and the ن of إِنٌ being incorporated into the ن of أَنَا, and the ا of this latter being elided in its conjunction with the following word; but إِنَّ قَائِمًا has also been heard. (Mughnee.) Sometimes it occurs [as a negative] in the complement of an oath: you say, وَٱللّٰهِ إِنٌ فَعَلْتُ, meaning مَا فَعَلْتُ [By God, I did not]. (Ṣ.)

Root: ان - Entry: إِنْ Signification: A3

[Thirdly,] it is a contraction of إِنَّ, and is put before a nominal and before a verbal proposition. (Mughnee, Ḳ.) In the former case, it is made to govern and is made to have no government: (Ṣ,* Ḳ:) [i. e.] in this case, it is allowable to make it govern; contr. to the opinion of the Koofees: (Mughnee:) Lth says that he who uses the contracted form of إِنَّ uses the nom. case with it, except that some of the people of El-Ḥijáz use the accus. case with it: (T:) thus it is said, accord. to one reading, [in the Ḳur xi. 113,] إِنْ كُلَّا لَمَا لَيُوَفِّيَنَّهُمٌ رَبُّكَ أَعْمَالَهُمٌ [Verily all of them, thy Lord will indeed fully render them the recompense of their works]: (T, Mughnee:) Fr says, We have not heard the Arabs use the contracted form and make it to govern, unless with a pronoun, in which case the desinential syntax is not apparent; and he adds that in the instance cited above, they make كُلّا to be governed in the accus. case by ليوفّينّهم; as though the phrase were لَيُوَفِّيَنَّهُمْ كُلَّا; and that كُلُّ would be proper; for you say, إِنْ زَيْدٌ لَقَائِمٌ [Verily Zeyd is standing]: (T:) the ex. given by Sb is, إِنْ عَمْرًا لَمُنطَلِقٌ [Verily ʼAmr is going away]. (Mughnee.) But it is [most] frequently made to have no government; as in the saying [in the Ḳur xliii. 34 accord. to one reading], وَإِنْ كُلُّ ذٰلِكَ لَمَا مَتَاعُ ٱلْحَيَاةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا [And verily all that is the furniture of the present life]; and, accord. to the reading of Hafs, [and of 'Ásim and Kh, in the Ḳur xx. 66, respecting which see إِنَّ,] إِنْ هٰذَانِ لَسَاحِرَانِ [Verily these two are enchanters];, &c. (Mughnee.) When it is put before a verbal proposition, it is necessarily made to have no government: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) and in most cases the verb is a preterite and of the kind called نَاسِخ [which effects a change of the grammatical form or of the meaning in a nominal proposition before which it is placed]; as in the saying [in the Ḳur ii. 138], وَإِنْ كَانَتٌ لَكَبِيرَةً [And verily it was a great matter]; and [in the Ḳur xvii. 75,] وَإِنْ كَادُوا لَيَفْتِنُونَكَ [And verily they were near to seducing thee]; (Mughnee;) in which last ex. AZ says, it means لَقَدْ, i. e. without doubt; and so in the same ch. vv. 78 and 108: (T:) less frequently it is an aor. of a verb of this kind; as in the saying [in the Ḳur xxvi. 186], وَإِنْ نَظُنُّكَ لَمِنَ ٱلْكَاذِبينَ [And verily we think thee to be of the number of the liars]: and both these kinds of expression may be taken as exs. to be imitated: less frequently than this it is a preterite of a verb not of the kind termed نَسخ; as in the saying [of a poet],

* شَلَّتٌ يَمِينُكَ إِنٌ قَتَلْتَ لَمُسْلِمًا *

[May thy right arm, or hand, dry up, or become unsound! verily thou hast slain a Muslim]; but this may not be taken as an ex. to be imitated; contr. to the opinion of Akh; for he allows the phrase, إِنْ قِامَ لَأَنَا [Verily I stood], and إِنٌ قَعَدَ لأَنْتَ [Verily thou sattest]: and less frequently than this it is an aor. of a verb not of the kind termed ناسخ; as in the saying, إِنْ يَزِينُكَ لَنَفْسُكَ وَإِنٌ يَشِينُكَ لَهِيَهٌ [Verily thy soul is that which beautifies thee, and it is that which deforms thee]; and this, by common consent, may not be taken as an ex. to be imitated. (Mughnee.) Wherever you find إِنٌ with لَ after it, decide that it is originally إِنَّ; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) as in the exs. above: but respecting this ل there is a difference of opinion: see this letter. (Mughnee.) J says, (TA,) إِنٌ is sometimes a contraction of إِنَّ, and this must have ل put before its predicate, to compensate for what is elided, of the doubled letter; as in the saying in the Ḳur [lxxxvi. 4, accord. to him who reads لَمَا instead of لَمَّا], إِنْ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ لَمَا عَلَيْهَا حَافِظٌ [Verily every soul hath over it a guardian]; and in the saying, إِنٌ زَيدٌ لَأَخُوكَ [Verily Zeyd is thy brother]; in order that it may not be confounded with إِنٌ which is syn. with the negative مَا: (Ṣ, TA:) but IB says, ل is here introduced to distinguish between negation and affirmation, and this إِنْ has neither subject nor predicate; so J's saying that the ل is put before its predicate is without meaning: and this ل is sometimes introduced with the objective complement of a verb; as in إِنْ ضَرَبْتُ لَزَيْدًا [Verily I struck, or beat, Zeyd]; and with the agent; as in إِنْ قَامَ لَزَيْدٌ [Verily Zeyd stood]. (TA.) When the contracted إِنْ governs, this ل is not necessary; so you may say, إِنْ زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ [Verily Zeyd is standing]; because in this case it cannot be confounded with the negative; for the negative does not render the subject mansoob and the predicate marfooa: and when it does not govern, if the meaning is apparent, the ل is not needed; as in

* وَنَحْنُ أُبَاةُ الضَّيْمِ مِنْ آلِ مَالِكٍ *
* وَإِنْ مَالِكٌ كَانَتْ كِرَامَ المَعَادِنِ *

[And we are persons who refuse to submit to injury, of the family of Málik: and verily the family of Málik are generous in respect of their origins]; كَانَتْ being here for لَكَانَتٌ. (I’Aḳ p. 99.)

Root: ان - Entry: إِنْ Signification: A4

[Fourthly,] it is redundant, (Ṣ, Mughnee, Ḳ,) occurring with مَا; as in the saying, مَا إِنْ يَقُومُ زَيْدٌ [Zeyd does not stand]; (Ṣ;) and in the saying [of a poet],

* كَا إِنْ أَتَيْتَ بِشَىْءٍ أَنْتَ تَكْرَهُهُ *

[Thou didst not a thing which thou dislikest]. (Mughnee, Ḳ: in the CK اَتْتُ.) It is mostly thus used after the negative ما, when put before a verbal proposition; as above; or before a nominal proposition; as in the saying,

* وَمَا إِنْ طِبُّنَا جبُنٌ ولٰكِنٌ *
* مَنَايَانَا وَدَوْلَةُ آخَرِينَا *

[And our habit is not cowardice; but our destinies and the good fortune of others caused our being defeated]: and in this case it prevents the government of ما, as in this verse: but in the saying,

* بَنِى غُدَانَةَ مَا إِنْ أَنْتُمُ ذَهَبًا *
* وَلَا صَرِيفًا وَلٰكِنٌ أَنْتُمُ الخَزَفُ *

[Sons of Ghudáneh, ye are not indeed gold, nor silver, or pure silver, but ye are pottery], accord. to him who relates it thus, saying ذهبًا and صريفًا, in the accus. case, it is explained as a negative, corroborative of ما: (Mughnee:) and accord. to J, (TA,) the negatives مَا and إِنٌ are sometimes thus combined for corroboration; as in the saying of the rájiz, (El-Aghlab El-ʼIjlee, TA,)

* مَا إِنٌ رَأَيْنَا مَلِكَّا أَغَارَا *
* أَكْثَرَ مِنْهُ قِرَةً وَقَارَا *

[We have not indeed seen a king who has made a hostile incursion possessing more numerous sheep, or goats, and camels, than he]; (Ṣ, TA;) but IB says that ان is here redundant, not a negative. (TA.) Sometimes it is redundant after the conjunct noun مَا; as in the saying,

* يُرَجِىّ المَرْإُ مَا إِنٌ لَا يَرَاهُ *
* وَتَعْرِضُ دُونَ أَدْنَاهُ الخُطُوبُ *

[Man hopes for that which he will not see; for calamities intervene as obstacles in the way to what is nearest thereof]. (Mughnee.) And after the مَا termed مَصْدَرِيَّة, (Mughnee,) [i. e.,] after the adverbial مَا [which is of the kind termed مصدريّة]; (TA;) as in the saying (of Maaloot El-Kurey'ee, cited by Sb, TA),

* وَرَجِّ الفَتَى لِلْخَيْرِ مَا إِنْ رَأَيْتَهُ *
* عَلَى السِّنِّ خَيْرًا لَايَزَالُ يَزِيدُ *

[And hope thou that the youth is destined for good as long as thou hast seen him not ceasing to increase in good with age]. (Mughnee.) And after the inceptive أَلَا; as in the saying,

* أَلَا إِنْ سَرَى لَيْلِى فبِتُّ كَئِيبَا *
* أُحَاذِرُ أَنْ تَنْأَى النَّوَى بِغَضُوبَا *

[Now he journeyed on, or during, that my night, and I passed the night in an evil state, broken in spirit by grief, being fearful that the distance to which he was going with Ghadoob (a woman so named) would become far]. (Mughnee.) And before the meddeh denoting disapproval: [for] Sb heard a man, on its being said to him, “Wilt thou go forth if the desert become plentiful in herbage?” reply, أَأَنَا إِنِيهٌ [What, I, indeed?] disapproving that he should think otherwise than that. (Mughnee. [See also art. انى.])

Root: ان - Entry: إِنْ Signification: A5

[Fifthly,] it is syn. with قَدْ: so it is said to be in the saying [in the Ḳur lxxxvii. 9], إِنْ نَفَعَتِ ٱلذِّكْرَى [Admonition hath profited], (T, Mughnee, Ḳ,) by IAạr (T) and by Ḳṭr: (Mughnee:) and Abu-l-ʼAbbás relates that the Arabs say, إِنٌ نَفَعَتِ ٱلذِّكْرَى meaning قَدْقَامَ زَيْدٌ [Zeyd has stood]; and he adds, that Ks states his having heard them say so, and having thought that it expressed a condition, but that he asked them, and they answered that they meant قَدْقَامَ زَيْدٌ, and not مَا قَامَ زَيْدٌ. (T.) [So too, accord. to the Ḳ, in all the exs. cited in the next sentence as from the Mughnee; but this is evidently a mistake, occasioned by an accidental omission.]

Root: ان - Entry: إِنْ Signification: A6

[Sixthly,] it is asserted also by the Koofees, that it is syn. with إِذْ, in the following exs.: in the Ḳur [v. 62], وَٱتَّقُوا ٱللّٰهَ إِنٌ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ [And fear ye God, because ye are believers: and so, accord. to AZ, as is said in the T, in a similar instance in the Ḳur ii. 278: and in the same, iv. 62]: and [in the Ḳur xlviii. 27,] لَتَدْ خُلُنَّ ٱلمَسْجِدَ ٱلْحَرَامَ إِنْ شَآءَ آمِنِينَ [Ye shall assuredly enter the sacred mosque, because God hath willed, in security]: and in like instances, when the verb therein expresses what is held sure to happen or to have happened: and in the saying,

* أَتَغْضَبُ إِنٌ أُدْنَا قُتَيْبَةَ حُزَّتَا *
* جِهَارًا وَلَمْ تَغْضَبْ لِقَتْلِ ٱبْنِ حَازِمِ *

[Art thou angry because the ears of Ḳuteybeh have been cut, openly, or publicly, and wast not angry for the slaughter of Ibn-Házim?]: (Mughnee:) but in all these instances [it is sufficiently obvious that] ان may be otherwise explained. (Mughnee, Ḳ.)

Root: ان - Entry: إِنْ Signification: A7

[Seventhly,] it is sometimes syn. with إِذَا; as in the Ḳur [ix. 23], لَا تَتَّخِذُوا آبَآءَكُمْ وَإِخْوَانَكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ إِنِ ٱسْتَحَبُّوا ٱلْكُفْرَعَلَى ٱلْإِيمَانِ [Take not ye your fathers and your brethren as friends when they love unbelief above belief]; and in the same [xxxiii. 49], وَٱمْرَأَةً مُؤْمِنَةً إِنْ وَهَبَتْ نَفْسَهَا لِلنَّبِىّ [And a believing woman when she giveth herself to the Prophet]: so says AZ. (T.)

Root: ان - Entry: إِنْ Signification: A8

[Eighthly,] it is used for إِمَّا, (Mughnee and Ḳ, voce إِمَّا,) distinct from إِمَّا which is a compound of the conditional إِنٌ and the redundant مَا. (Mughnee ibid.) [See an ex. in a verse cited voce إِمَّا in the present work, commencing with the words سَقَتْهُ الرَّوَاعِدُ.]


أَنَ: see أَنْ, in four places.


أَنَّ is one of the particles which annul the quality of the inchoative; and is originally إِنَّ; therefore Sb has not mentioned it among those particles [as distinct from إِنَّ, from which, however, it is distinguished in meaning]: (I’Aḳ p. 90:) it is a corroborative particle; (I’Aḳ, Mughnee;) a particle governing the subject in the accus. case and the predicate in the nom. case, (Ṣ, I’Aḳ, Mughnee, Ḳ,) combining with what follows it to form an equivalent to an inf. n., (Ṣ,) [for,] accord. to the most correct opinion, it is a conjunct particle, which, together with its two objects of government, is explained by means of an inf. n. (Mughnee.) If the predicate is derived, the inf. n. by means of which it is explained is of the same radical letters; so that the implied meaning of بَلَغَنِى أَنَّكَ تَنْطَلِقُ [It has come to my knowledge, or been related to me, or been told to me, or it came to my knowledge,, &c., that thou goest away], or أَنَّكَ مُنْطَلِقٌ [that thou art going away], is بَلَغَنِى الاِنْطِلَاقُ [or rather ٱنْطِلَاقُكَ thy going away has come to my knowledge,, &c.]; and hence, the implied meaning of بَلَغَنِى أَنَّكَ فِى الدَّارِ [It has come to my knowledge,, &c., that thou art in the house] is بَلَغَنِى ٱسْتِقْرَارُكَ فِى الدَّارِ [thy remaining in the house has come to my knowledge,, &c.], because thea predicate is properly a word suppressed from اِستَقَرَّ or مُسْتَقِرٌّ: and if the predicate is underived, the implied meaning is explained by the word كَوْنِ; so that the implied meaning of بَلَغَنِى أَنَّ هٰذا زَيْدٌ [It has come to my knowledge,, &c., that this is Zeyd] is بَلَغَنِى كَوْنُهُ زَيْدًا [his being Zeyd has come to my knowledge,, &c.]; for the relation of every predicate expressed by an underived word to its subject may be denoted by a word signifying “being;” so that you say, هٰذَا زَيْدٌ and, if you will, هٰذَا كَائِنٌ زَيْدًا; both signifying the same. (Mughnee.) There are cases in which either أَنَّ or إِنَّ may be used: [see the latter, in twelve places:] other cases in which only the former may be used: and others in which only the latter. (I’Aḳ p. 91.) The former only may be used when the implied meaning is to be explained by an inf. n. (I’Aḳ, Ḳ.) Such is the case when it occurs in the place of a noun governed by a verb in the nom. case; as in يُعْجِبُنِى أَنَّكَ قَائِمٌ [It pleases me that thou art standing], i. e. قِيَامُكَ [thy standing pleases me]: or in the place of a noun governed by a verb in the accus. case; as in عَرَفْتُ أَتَّكَ قَائِمٌ [I knew that thou wast standing], i. e. قِيَامَكَ [thy standing]: or in the place of a noun governed in the gen. case by a particle; as in عَجِبْتُ مِنْ أَنَّكَ قَائِمٌ [I wondered that thou wast standing], i. e. مِنْ قِيَامكَ [at, or by reason of, thy standing]: (I’Aḳ p. 91:) [and sometimes a preposition is understood; as in لَا شَكَّ أَنَّهُ كَذَا, for لَا شَكَّ فِى أَنَّهُ كَذَا There is no doubt that it is thus, i. e. لَا شّكَّ فِى كَوْنِهِ كَذَا There is no doubt of its being thus:] and أَنَّ must be used after لَوْ; as in لَوْ أَنَّكَ قَائِمٌ لَقُمْتُ [If that thou wert standing, I had stood, or would have stood, i. e. لَوْ ثَبَتَ قِيَامُكَ, or لَوْ قِيَامُكَ ثَابِتٌ, accord. to different opinions, both meaning if thy standing were a fact: see I’Aḳ pp. 305 and 306]. (Ḳ.) Sometimes its أ is changed into ع; so that you say, عَلِمْتُ عَنَّكَ مُنْطَلِقٌ [meaning I knew that thou wast going away]. (M.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنَّ Signification: A2

With ك prefixed to it, it is a particle of comparison, (Ṣ,* M, TA,) [still] governing the subject in the accus. case and the predicate in the nom. case: (TA:) you say, كَأَنَّ زَيْدًا عَمْرٌو [It is as though Zeyd were ʼAmr], meaning that Zeyd is like ʼAmr; as though you said, إِنَّ زَيْدًا كَائِنٌ كَعَمْرٍو [verily, Zeyd is like ʼAmr]: [it is to be accounted for by an ellipsis: or] the ك is taken away from the middle of this proposition, and put at its commencement, and then the kesreh of إِنَّ necessarily becomes changed to a fet-ḥah, because إِنَّ cannot be preceded by a preposition, for it never occurs but at the commencement [of a proposition]. (IJ, M.) Sometimes, كَأَنَّ denotes denial; as in the saying, كَأَنَّكَ أَمِيرُنَا فَتَأْمُرَنَا [As though thou wert our commander so that thou shouldst command us], meaning thou art not our commander [that thou shouldst command us]. (TA.) It also denotes wishing; as in the saying, كَأْنَّكَ بِى قَدْ قُلْتُ الشِّعْرَ فَأُجِيدَهُ, meaning Would that I had poetized, or versified, so that I might do it well: (TA:) [an elliptical form of speech, of which the implied meaning seems to be, would that I were as though thou sawest me that I had poetized,, &c.; or the like: for] you say [also], كَأَنِّى بِكَ meaning كَأَنِّى أَبْصُرُ بِكَ [It is as though I saw thee]; i. e. I know from what I witness of thy condition to-day how thy condition will be tomorrow; so that it is as though I saw thee in that condition: (Ḥar p. 126: [see also بِ; near the end of the paragraph:]) [thus,] كَأَنَّ also denotes knowing; and also thinking; [the former as in the saying immediately preceding, and] as when you say, كَأَنَّ ٱللّٰهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يَشَآءُ [I know, or rather it appears, as though seen, that God does what He wills]; and [the latter as when you say,] كَأَنَّكَ خَارِجٌ [I think, or rather it seems, that Thou art going forth]. (TA.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنَّ Signification: A3

[When it has The affixed pronoun of the first person, sing. Or Pl., you say, أَنِّى and أَنَّنِى, and أَنَّا and أَنَّنَا: and When it has also the ك of comparison prefixed to It,] you say, كَأَنِّى and كَأَنَّنِى, [and كَأَنَّا and كَأَنَّنَا,] like as you say, لٰكِنِّى and لٰكِنَّنِى [&c.]. (Ṣ.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنَّ Signification: A4

As أَنَّ is a derivative from إِنَّ, it is correctly asserted by Z that أَنَّمَا imports restriction, likeإِنَّمَا↓; both of which occur in the saying in the Ḳur [xxi. 108], قُلْ إِنَّمَا↓ يُوحَى إِلَىَّ أَنَّمَا إِلٰهُكُمْ إِلٰهً وَاحِدٌ [Say thou, It is only revealed to me that your God is only one God]: the former is for the restricting of the quality to the qualified; and the latter, for the reverse: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) i. e. the former is for the restricting of the revelation to the declaration of the unity; and the latter, for the restricting of “your God” to unity: (Marginal note in a copy of the Mughnee:) but these words of the Ḳur do not imply that nothing save the unity was revealed to the Prophet; for the restriction is limited to the case of the discourse with the believers in a plurality of gods; so that the meaning is, there has not been revealed to me [aught], respecting the godhead, except the unity; not the attribution of any associate to God. (Mughnee.) [أَنَّمَا, however, does not always import restriction; nor does always even إِنَّمَا↓: in each of these, ما is what is termed كَافَّةٌ; i. e., it restricts the particle to which it is affixed from exercising any government; and sometimes has no effect upon the signification of that particle: (see art. مَا; and see إِنَّمَا, below, voce إِنَّ:) thus, for instance, in the Ḳur viii. 28, وَٱعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ فِتْنَةً means And know ye that your possessions and your children are a trial; not that they are only a trial. When it has the ك of comparison prefixed to it, it is sometimes contracted; as in the following ex.:] a poet says,

* كَأَمَّا يَخْتَطِينَ عَشلَى قَتَادٍ *
* وَيَسْتَضْحِكْنَ عَنْ حَبِّ الغَمَامِ *

[As though, by reason of their mincing gait, they were walking upon tragacanthas; and they were laughing so as to discover teeth like hailstones]: كَأَمَّا being for كَأَنَّمَا. (IAạr.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنَّ Signification: A5

أَنَّ is someTimes contracted into أَنْ; (Ṣ, Mughnee;) and in This case, it governs in the manner already exPlained, voce أَنْ. (Mughnee.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنَّ Signification: A6

It is also syn. with لَعَلَّ; (Sb, Ṣ, M, Mughnee, Ḳ;) as in the saying, اِيتِ السُّوقَ أَنَّكَ تَشْتَرِى لَنَا شَيْئًا [Come thou to the market; may-be thou wilt buy for us something; اِيتِ being originally اِئْتِ]; i. e. لَعَلَّكَ: (Sb, M, Mughnee, Ḳ:*) and, accord. to some, (M, Mughnee, Ḳ,) so in the Ḳur [vi. 109], where it is said, وَمَا يُشْعِرُكُمْ أَنَّهَا إِذَا جَآءَتْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ [And what maketh you to know? (meaning, maketh you to know that they will believe when it cometh? i. e. ye do not know that: Jel:) Maybe, when it cometh, they will not believe]: (Ṣ, M, Mughnee, Ḳ:) thus accord. to this reading: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) and Ubeí here reads لَعَلَّهَا. (Ṣ.) أَنَّ and لَأَنَّ and لَوْ أَنَّ are all syn. with عَلَّ and لَعَلَّ; and أَنِّى and أَنَّنِى, and لَأَنِّى and لأَنَّنِى, and لُوْ أَنِّى and لَوْ أَنِّنِى, with عَلِّى and لَعَلِّى. (Ḳ voce لَعَلَّ.)

Root: ان - Entry: أَنَّ Signification: A7

It is also syn. with أَجَلْ [Yes, or yea; or it is as thou sayest]. (M, TA.) [See also إِنَّ as exemplified by a verse commencing with وَيَقُلْنَ and by a saying of Ibn-Ez-Zubeyr.]


إِنَّ is one of the particles which annul the quality of the inchoative, like أَنَّ, of which it is the original: (I’Aḳ p. 90:) it is a corroborative particle, (I’Aḳ, Mughnee,) corroborating the predicate; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) governing the subject in the accus. case and the predicate in the nom. case; (Ṣ, I’Aḳ, Mughnee, Ḳ;) [and may generally be rendered by Verily, or certainly, or the like; exactly agreeing with the Greek ὄτι, as used in Luke vii. 16 and in many other passages in the New Testament; though it often seems to be nothing more than a sign of inception, which can hardly be rendered at all in English; unless in pronunciation, by laying a stress upon the predicate, or upon the copula;] as in the saying, إِنَّ زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ [Verily, or certainly, Zeyd is standing; or simply, Zeyd is standing, if we lay a stress upon standing, or upon is]. (I’Aḳ p. 90.) But sometimes it governs both the subject and the predicate in the accus. case; as in the saying,

* إِذَا ٱشْتَدَّ جُنْحُ اللَّيْلِ فَلْتَأْتِ وَلْتَكُنٌ *
* خُطَاكَ خِفَافًا إِنَّ حُرَّاسَنَا أُسْدَا *

[When the darkness of night becomes, or shall become, intense, then do thou come, and let thy steps be light: verily our guardians are lions]; (Mughnee, Ḳ; [but in the latter, for ٱشْتَدَّ, we find ٱسْوَدَّ, so that the meaning is, when the first portion of the night becomes, or shall become, black,, &c.;]) and as in a trad. in which it is said, انَّ قَعْرَ جَهَنَّمَ سَبْعِينَ خَرِيفًا [Verily the bottom of Hell is a distance of seventy years of journeying]: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) the verse, however, is explained by the supposition that it presents a denotative of state [in the last word, which is equivalent to شِجْعَانًا or the like], and that the predicate is suppressed, the meaning being, تَلْقَاهُمْ أُسْدًا [thou wilt find them lions]; and the trad. by the supposition that قَعْرَ is an inf. n., and سَبْعِينَ is an adverbial noun, so that the meaning is, the reaching the bottom of hell is [to be accomplished in no less time than] in seventy years. (Mughnee.) And sometimes the inchoative [of a proposition] after it is in the nom. case, and its subject is what is termed ضَمِيرُ شَأْنٍ, suppressed; as in the saying of Moḥammad, إِنَّ مِنْ أَشَدِّ النَّاسِ عَذَابًا يَوْمَ القِيٰمَةِ المُصَوِّرُونَ [Verily, (the case is this:) of the men most severely to be punished, on the day of resurrection, are the makers of images], originally إِنَّهُ, i. e. إِنَّ الشَّأْنَ; (Mughnee, Ḳ;*) and as in the saying in the Ḳur [xx. 66], إِنَّ هٰذَانِ لَسَاحِرَانِ, [accord. to some,] as will be seen in what follows. (TA.)

Root: ان - Entry: إِنَّ Signification: A2

Of the two particles إِنَّ andأَنَّ↓, in certain cases only the former may be used; and in certain other cases either of them may be used. (I’Aḳ p. 91.) The former must be used when it occurs inceptively, (Kh, T, I’Aḳ p. 92, Mughnee, Ḳ,) having nothing before it upon which it is syntactically dependent, (Kh, T,) with respect to the wording or the meaning; (Ḳ;) as in إِنَّ زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ [Verily Zeyd is standing]. (I’Aḳ, Ḳ.) It is used after أَلَا, (I’Aḳ, Ḳ,) the inceptive particle, (I’Aḳ,) or the particle which is employed to give notice [of something about to be said]; (Ḳ;) as in أَلَا إِنَّ زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ [Now surely Zeyd is standing]. (I’Aḳ Ḳ.) And when it occurs at the commencement of the complement of a conjunct noun; (I’Aḳ, Ḳ;*) as in جَآءَ الَّذِى إِنَّهُ قَائِمٌ [He who is standing came]; (I’Aḳ;) and in the Ḳur [xxviii. 76], وَآتَيْنَاهُ مِنَ ٱلْكُنُورِ مَا إِنَّ مَفَاتِحَهُ لَتَنُوْءُ بِٱلْعُصْبَةِ أُولِى القُوَّةِ [And we gave him, of treasures, that whereof the keys would weigh down the company of men possessed of strength]. (I’Aḳ,* Ḳ,* TA.) And in the complement of an oath, (I’Aḳ, Ḳ,) when its predicate has لَ, (I’Aḳ,) or whether its subject or its predicate has لَ or has it not; (Ḳ;) as in وَٱللّٰهِ إِنَّ زَيْدًا لَقَائِمٌ [By Allah, verily Zeyd is standing], (I’Aḳ,) and إِنَّهُ قَائِمٌ: or, as some say, when you do not employ the ل, the particle is with fet-ḥ; as inوَٱللّٰهِ أَنَّكَ↓ قَائِمٌ [I swear by Allah that thou art standing]; mentioned by Ks as thus heard by him from the Arabs: (TA:) but respecting this case we shall have to speak hereafter. (I’Aḳ.) And when it occurs after the word قَوْلٌ or a derivative thereof, in repeating the saying to which that word relates; (Fr, T, I’Aḳ,* Ḳ;*) as in the saying [in the Ḳur iv. 156], وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا ٱلْمَسِيحَ [And their saying, Verily we have slain the Messiah]; (Fr, T;) and قُلْتُ إِنَّ زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ [I said, Verily Zeyd is standing]; (I’Aḳ;) and [in the Ḳur v. 115,] قَالَ ٱللّٰهُ إِنّى مُنّزِّلُهَا عَلَيْكُمْ [God said, Verily I will cause it to descend unto you]; accord. to the dial. of him who does not pronounce it with fet-ḥ: (Ḳ:) but when it occurs in explaining what is said, you use أَنَّ↓; as in the saying, قَدْ قُلْتُ لَكَ كَلَامًا حَسَنًا أَنَّ أَبَاكَ شَرِيفٌ وَأَنَّكَ عَاقِلٌ [I have said to thee a good saying; that thy father is noble and that thou art intelligent]; (Fr, T;) or when the word signifying “saying” is used as meaning “thinking;” as in أَتَقُولُ أَنَّ زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ [Dost thou say that Zeyd is standing?], meaning أَتَظُنُّ [Dost thou think?]. (I’Aḳ.) Also, when it occurs in a phrase denotative of state; (I’Aḳ;) [i. e.,] after the و denotative of state; (Ḳ;) as in زُرْتُهُ وَإِنِّى ذُوأَمَلٍ [I visited him, I verily having hope, or expectation]; (I’Aḳ;) and in جَآءَ زَيْدٌ وَإِنَّ يَدَهُ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ [Zeyd came, he verily having his hand upon his head]. (Ḳ.) And when it occurs in a phrase which is the predicate of a proper (as opposed to an ideal) substantive; (I’Aḳ, Ḳ;*) as in زَيْدٌ إِنَّهُ قَائِمٌ [Zeyd, verily he is standing], (I’Aḳ,) or ذَاهِبٌ [going away]; contr. to the assertion of Fr. (Ḳ.) And when it occurs before the ل which suspends the grammatical government of a verb of the mind, preceding it, with respect to its objective complements; (I’Aḳ, Ḳ;*) as in عَلِمْتُ إِنَّ زَيْدًا لَقَائِمٌ [I knew Zeyd verily was standing]; (I’Aḳ;) and in [the Ḳur lxiii. 1,] وَٱللّٰهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ [And God knoweth thou verily art his apostle]: (Ḳ:) but if the ل is not in its predicate, you say, أَنَّ↓; as in عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ [I knew that Zeyd was standing]. (I’Aḳ.) And in the like of the saying in the Ḳur [ii. 171], وَإِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱخْتَلَفُوا فِى ٱلْكِتَابِ لَفِى شَقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ [And verily they who differ among themselves respecting the book are in an opposition remote from the truth]; because of the ل [of inception] which occurs after it, in لَفِى: (Ks, AʼObeyd:) the ل of inception which occurs before the predicate of إِنَّ should properly commence the sentence; so that إِنَّ زَيْدًا لَقَائِمٌ [Verily Zeyd is standing] should properly be لَإِنَّ زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ; but as the ل is a corroborative and إِنَّ is a corroborative, they dislike putting two particles of the same meaning together, and therefore they put the ل later, transferring it to the predicate: Mbr allows its being put before the predicate of أَنَّ↓; and thus it occurs in an unusual reading of the saying [in the Ḳur xxv. 22], إِلَّا أَنَّهُمْ لَيَأْكُلُونَ ٱلطَّعَامَ [But they ate food]; but this is explained by the supposition that the ل is here redundant: (I’Aḳ p. 95:) this is the reading of Saʼeed Ibn-Jubeyr: others read, إِلَّا إِنَّهُمْ لَيَأْكُلُنَ الطَّعَامَ [but verily they ate food]: and إِنَّ [as well as أَنَّ↓] is used after the exceptive إِلَّا when it is not followed by the ل [of inception]. (TA.) Also, When it occurs after حَيْثُ; as in اِجْلِسْ حَيْثُ إِنَّ زَيْدًا جَالِسٌ [Sit thou where Zeyd is sitting]. (I’Aḳ p. 92, and k) And after حَتَّى; as in مَرِضَ زَيْدٌ حَتَّى إِنَّهُمْ لَا يَرْجُونَهُ [Zeyd has fallen sick, so that verily they have no hope for him]: whereas after a particle governing the gen. case, [i. e. a preposition,] you say, أَنَّ↓. (IHsh in De Sacy's Anthol. Gr. Ar. P. 76.)

Root: ان - Entry: إِنَّ Signification: A3

Either of these two forms may be used after إِذَا denoting a thing's happening suddenly, or unexpectedly; as in خَرَجْتُ فَإِذَا إِنَّ زَيْدًاقَائِمٌ [I went forth, and lo, verily Zeyd was standing], andفَإِذَا أَنَّ↓ زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ [and lo, or at that present time, Zeyd's standing]; in which latter case, أَنَّ with its complement is [properly] an inchoative, and its enunciative is إِذَا; the implied meaning being, and at that present time was the standing of Zeyd: or it may be that the enunciative is suppressed, and that the implied meaning is, [and lo, or at that present time,] the standing of Zeyd was an event come to pass. (I’Aḳ p. 93.) Also, when occurring in the complement of an oath, if its enunciative is without ل: (I’Aḳ:) [see exs. given above:] or, as some say, only أَنَّ↓ is used in this case. (TA.) Also, when occurring after فَ denoting the complement of a condition; as in مَنْ يَأْتِنِى فَإِنَّهُ مُكْرَمٌ [He who cometh to me, verily he shall be treated with honour], andأَنَّهُ↓ مُكْرَمٌ; in which latter case, أَنَّ with its complement is an inchoative, and the enunciative is suppressed; the implied meaning being, honourable treatment of him shall be an event come to pass: or it may be an enunciative to an inchoative suppressed; the implied meaning being, his recompense shall be honourable treatment. (I’Aḳ p. 94.) Also, when occurring after an inchoative having the meaning of a saying, its enunciative being a saying, and the sayer being one; as in خَيْرُ القَوْلِ إِنّى أَحْمَدُ [The best saying is, Verily I praise God], andأَنِّى↓ أَحْمَدُ; in which latter case, أَنَّ with its complement is an enunciative of خَيْرُ; the implied meaning being, the best saying is the praising of God [or my praising of God]. (I’Aḳ ubi suprà.) You also say, لَبَّيْكَ إِنَّ الحَمْدَلَكَ [At thy service! Verily praise belongeth to Thee! O God]; commencing [with إِنَّ] a new proposition: and sometimes one says, أَنَّ↓; meaning بِأَنَّ الحَمْدَ لَكَ [because praise belongeth to Thee]. (Mṣb.)

Root: ان - Entry: إِنَّ Signification: A4

The cases in which إِن may not be used in the place of أَنَّ have been mentioned above, voce أَنَّ.

Root: ان - Entry: إِنَّ Signification: A5

[When it has the affixed pronoun of the first person, sing. or pl.,] you say, إِنِّى and إِنَّنِى, (Ṣ,) and إِنَّا and إِنَّنَا, (TA,) like as you say لٰكِنِّى and لٰكِنِّنِى [&c.]. (Ṣ.) إِنَّ as a contraction of إِنَّ أَنَا has been mentioned above, as occurring in the phrase إِنَّ قَائِمٌ, voce إِنْ, q. v.

Root: ان - Entry: إِنَّ Signification: A6

Accord. to the grammarians, (T,) إِنَّمَا is a compound of إِنَّ and مَا, (T, Ṣ,) which latter prevents the former's having any government: (T:) it imports restriction; like أَنَّمَا, which see above, voce أَنَّ, in three places: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) [i. e.] it imports the restriction of that which it precedes to that which follows it; as in إِنَّمَا زَيْدٌ مُنْطَلِقٌ [Zeyd is only going away], and إِنَّمَا يَنْطَلِقُ زَيْدٌ [Only Zeyd goes away]: (Bḍ in ii. 10:) [in other words,] it is used to particularize, or specify, or distinguish a thing from other things: (Ṣ:) it affirms a thing in relation to that which is mentioned after it, and denies it in relation to other things; (T, Ṣ;) as in the saying in the Ḳur [ix. 60], إِنَّمَا ٱلصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَآءِ [The contributions levied for pious uses are only, or but, for the poor]: (Ṣ:) but El-Ámidee and AḤei say that it does not import restriction, but only corroboration of an affirmation, because it is a compound of the corroborative إِنَّ and the redundant مَا which restrains the former from exercising government, and that it has no application to denote negation implied in restriction, as is shown by the trad., إِنَّمَا الِّرِبَا فِى النَّسِيْئَةِ [which must mean, Verily usury is in the delay of payment], for usury is in other things beside that here mentioned, as رِبَا الفضْلِ [or profit obtained by the superior value of a thing received over that of a thing given], by common consent: (Kull p. 76:) some say that it necessarily imports restriction: J says what has been cited above from the Ṣ: some say that it has an overt signification in denoting restriction, and is susceptible of the meaning of corroboration: some say the reverse of this: El-Ámidee says that if it were [properly] restrictive, its occurrence in another sense would be at variance with the original import; but to this it may be replied, that if it were [properly] corroborative, its occurrence in another sense would be at variance with the original import: it [therefore] seems that it is susceptible of both these meanings, bearing one or the other according as this or that suits the place. (Mṣb.) إِنَّمَا is to be distinguished from إِنَّ with the conjunct [noun] مَا, which does not restrain it from governing [though its government with this is not apparent, and which is written separately]; as in إِنَّ مَا عِنْكَ حَسَنٌ meaning Verily what is with thee is good, and in إِنَّ مَا فَعَلْتَ حَسَنٌ meaning Verily thy deed is good. (I’Aḳ pp. 97 and 98.)

Root: ان - Entry: إِنَّ Signification: A7

إِنَّ is sometimes contracted into إِنٌ; (Ṣ, Mughnee, Ḳ;) and in this case, it is made to govern and is made to have no government: (Ṣ:) it is seldom made to govern in this case; often made to have no government: the Koofees say that it is not contracted; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) and that when one says, إِنْ زَيْدٌ لَمُنْطَلِقٌ [the meaning is virtually Verily Zeyd is going away, but] إِنٌ is a negative and the ل is syn. with إِلّا; but this assertion is refuted by the fact that some make it to govern when contracted, as in exs. cited above, voce إِنْ, q. v. (Mughnee.)

Root: ان - Entry: إِنَّ Signification: A8

It is also syn. with نَعَمٌ [Even so; yes; yea]; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) contr. to the opinion of AO. (Mughnee.) [See also أَنَّ, last sentence.] Those who affirm it to have this meaning cite as an ex. the following verse (Mughnee, Ḳ *) of ʼObeyd-Allah Ibn-Keys-er-Rukeiyát: (Ṣ,* TA:)

* وَيَقُلْنَ شَيْبٌ قَدْ عَلَا *
* كَ وَقَدْ كَبِرْتَ فَقُلْتُ إِنَّهْ *

[And they say, (namely, the women,) Hoariness hath come upon thee, and thou hast become old: and I say, Even so, or yes, or yea]: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) but this has been rebutted by the saying, We do not concede that the ه is here added to denote the pause, but assert that it is a pronoun, governed by إِنَّ in the accus. case, and the predicate is suppressed; the meaning being, إِنَّهُ كَذٰلِكَ [Verily it, i. e. the case, is thus]. (Mughnee.) [J says,] The meaning is, إنَّهُ قَدْ كَانَ كَمَا تَقُلْنَ [Verily it, i. e. the case, hath been as ye say]: A ʼObeyd says, This is a curtailment of the speech of the Arabs; the pronoun being deemed sufficient because the meaning is known: and as to the saying of Akh, that it signifies نَعَمْ, he only means thereby that it may be so rendered, not that it is originally applied to that signification: he says that the ه is here added to denote the pause. (Ṣ.) There is, however, a good ex. of إِنَّ in the sense of نَعَمْ in the saying of Ibn-Ez-Zubeyr, to him who said to him, “May God curse a she camel which carried me to thee,” إِنَّ وَرَاكِبَهَا, i. e. Even so, or yes, or yea; and may God curse her rider: for the suppression of both the subject and the predicate is not allowable. (Mughnee.) And hence, accord. to Mbr, the saying in the Ḳur [xx. 66], as thus read, إِنَّ هٰذانِ لَسَاحِرَانِ [meaning, if so, Yes, these two are enchanters]. (Mughnee.) [But this phrase has given rise to much discussion, related in the Mughnee and other works. The following is a brief abstract of what has been said respecting it by several of the leading authorities.] A booIs-hák says that the people of El-Medeeneh and El-Koofeh read as above, except 'Ásim, who is reported to have read, إِنٌ هٰذَانِ, without teshdeed, and so is Kh; [so too is Hafs, as is said above, voce إِنْ;] and that AA read إِنَّ هٰذيْنِ, the former word with teshdeed, and the latter in the accus. case: that the argument for إِنَّ هٰذَانِ, with teshdeed and the nom. case, [or rather what is identical in form with the nom. case,] is, that it is of the dial. of Kináneh, in which the dual is formed by the termination ان in the nom. and accus. and gen. cases alike, as also in the dial. of Benu-l-Hárith Ibn-Kaab: but that the old grammarians say that ه is here suppressed; the meaning being, إِنَّهُ هٰذَانِ: (T:) this last assertion, however, is weak; for what is applied to the purpose of corroboration should not be suppressed, and the instances of its suppression which have been heard are deviations from general usage, except in the case of أَنَّ, with fet-ḥ, contracted into أَنْ: (Mughnee:) Aboo-Is-ḥáḳ then adds, that some say, إِنَّ is here syn. with نَعَمْ: this last opinion he holds to be the best; the meaning being, نَعَمْ هٰذَانِ لَهُمَا سَاحِرَانِ [Yes, these two, verily they are two enchanters: for this is not a case in which the ل (which is the ل of inception) can be regarded as transferred from its proper place, at the commencement of the sentence or proposition, as it is in some instances mentioned in the former half of this paragraph: but it is said in the Mughnee that this explanation is invalidated by the fact that the combining of the corroborative ل and the suppression of the inchoative is like the combining of two things inconsistent, or incompatible; as is also the opinion that the ل is redundant, because the redundant ل prefixed to the enunciative is peculiar to poetry]: next in point of goodness, in the opinion of A booIs-hák, is, that it is of the dial. of Kináneh and Benu-l-Hárith Ibn-Kaab: the reading of AA he does not allow, because it is at variance with the written text: but he approves the reading of 'Ásim and Kh. (T.)

Root: ان - Entry: إِنَّ Dissociation: B

إِنَّ also occurs as a verb: it is the third person pl. fem. of the pret. from الأَيْنُ, syn. with التَّعَبُ; or from آنَ syn. with قَرُبَ: or the third person sing. masc. of the pret. passive from الأَنيِنُ, in the dial. of those who, for رُدَّ and حُبَّ, say رِدَّ and حِبَّ, likening these verbs to قِيلَ and بِيعَ: or the sing. masc. of the imperative from the same: or the pl. fem. of the imperative from الأَيْنُ; or from آنَ syn. with قَرُبَ: or the sing. fem. of the corroborated form of the imperative from وَأَى, syn. with وَعَدَ. (Mughnee.)


أَنَا, signifying I: see أَنْ, in seven places.


أَنَهْ, signifying I: see أَنْ, in two places.


أَنَّةٌ i. q. أَنِينٌ [inf. n. of أَنَّ, but app. a simple subst., signifying A moan, moaning, or prolonged voice of complaint; or a saying Ah: or a complaint: or a cry]. (TA.)


أَنْتَ, signifying Thou: fem. أَنْتِ; dual أَنْتُمَا; pl. masc. أَنْتُمْ, and pl. fem. أَنْتُنَّ: see أَنْ, in six places.


أُنَنَةٌ see أَنَّانٌ


أُنَانٌ see أَنَّانٌ

أَنَّانٌ / أَنَّانَةٌ

أَنَّانٌ One who moans; who utters a moaning, or prolonged voice of complaint; or who says Ah; much, or frequently; as alsoأُنَانٌ↓ andأُنَنَةٌ↓: (M, Ḳ:) or this last signifies one who publishes complaint, or makes it public, much, or frequently: (M:) or one who talks and grieves and complains much, or frequently; and it has no verb derived from it: (T:) and you say, رَجُلٌ أُنَنَةٌ قُنَنَةٌ, [in which the latter epithet is app. an imitative sequent to the former,] meaning an eloquent man. (TA.) The fem. of أَنَّانٌ is with ة {أَنَّانَةٌ}: (M, Ḳ:) and is said to be applied to a woman who moans, or says Ah, and is affected with compassion, for a dead husband, on seeing another whom she has married after the former. (MF.) [See also حَنَّانَةٌ, voce حَنَّانٌ.]


آنَ, signifying I: see أَنْ, in two places.

آنٌّ / آنَّةٌ

آنٌّ part. n. of أَنَّ, [Moaning; or uttering a moan or moaning or a prolonged voice of complaint; or saying Ah; by reason of pain: complaining by reason of disease or pain: or] uttering a cry or cries: fem. with ة {آنَّةٌ}. (Mṣb.) [Hence,] you say, مَا لَهُ حَانَّةٌ وَلَا آنَّةٌ He has not a she camel nor a sheep, or goat: (Ṣ, M, A, Ḳ:) or he has not a she camel nor a female slave (M, Ḳ) that moans by reason of fatigue. (M.)


مَئِنَّةٌ, occurring in a trad., (Ṣ, Mgh, Ḳ, &c., in the first and last in art. مأن, and in the second in the present art.,) where it is said, إِنَّ طُولَ الصَّلَاةِ وَقِصَرَ الخُطْبَةِ مَئِنَّةٌ مِنْ فِقْهِ الرَّجُلِ, (Ṣ, Mgh, TA, &c.,) is of the measure مَفعِلَةٌ وَقِصَرَ الخُطْبَةِ مَئِنَّةٌ مِنْ فِقْهِ الرَّجُلِ, [originally مَأْنِنَةٌ,] from إِنَّ, (Ṣ, Z in the Fáïk, IAth, Mgh, Ḳ,) the corroborative particle; (Z, IAth, Mgh;) like مَعْسَاةٌ from عَسَى; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) but not regularly derived from إِنَّ, because a word may not be so derived from a particle; or it may be said that this is so derived after the particle has been made a noun; (Z, IAth;) or neither of these modes of derivation is regular: (MF:) the meaning is, [Verily the longness of the prayer and the shortness of the oration from the pulpit are (together)] a proper ground for one's saying, Verily the man is a person of knowledge or intelligence: (Z,* Mgh, Ḳ in art. مأن:) this is the proper signification: accord. to AO, the meaning is, a thing whereby one learns the knowledge, or intelligence, of the man: (Mgh:) or it means a thing suitable to, (Ṣ, Mgh,) and whereby one knows, (Ṣ,) the knowledge, or intelligence, of the man: (Ṣ, Mgh:) or a sign (Aṣ, Ṣ, Ḳ) of the knowledge, or intelligence, of the man; and suitable thereto: (Aṣ, Ṣ:) or an evidence thereof: (M:) or an indication, or a symptom, thereof; everything that indicates a thing being said to be مَئِنَّةٌ لَهُ: [so that مَئِنَّةٌ لِكَذَا may be well rendered a thing that occasions one's knowing, or inferring, or suspecting, such a thing; and in like manner, a person that occasions one's doing so: or, more properly, a thing, &c., in which such a thing is usually known to take place, or have place, or be, or exist, like مَظِنَّةٌ:] one of the strangest of the things said of it is, that the ء is a substitute for the ظ of مَظِنَّةٌ: (IAth:) this seems to have been the opinion of Lḥ: (Az, L:) accord. to AA, it is syn. with آيَةٌ [a sign,, &c.]. (TA.) Aṣ says (Ṣ,* Ḳ, TA, all in art. مأن) that the word is thus, with teshdeed to the ن, in the trad. and in a verse of poetry, as these are related; (Ṣ, TA;) but correctly, in his opinion, it should be مَئِينَةٌ of the measure فَعِيلَةٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,* TA,) unless it be from إِنَّ, as first stated above: (Ṣ, TA:) AZ used to say that it is مَئِتَّةٌ, with ت, (Ṣ, Ḳ,* TA,) meaning a thing (lit. a place) meet, fit, or proper, or worthy or deserving, and the like; of the measure مَفْعِلَةٌ, [originally مَأْتِتَةٌ,] from أَتَّهُ meaning “he overcame him with an argument or the like:” (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA:) but some say that it is of the measure فَعِلَّةٌ, from مَأَنَ meaning اِحْتَمَلَ: see art. مأن. (Ḳ in that art.) You say also, هُوَ مَئِنَّةٌ لِلْخَيْرِ, from إِنَّ, He is a person fit, or proper, for one's saying of him, Verily he is good; and in like manner, مَعْسَاةٌ, from عَسَى, as meaning “a person fit, or proper, for one's saying of him, May-be he will do good.” (A, TA.) And إِنَّهُ لَمَئِنَّةٌ أَنْ يَكُونَ كَذَا Verily it is meet, fit, or proper, for one's saying of it, Verily it is thus; or is worthy, or deserving, of one's saying, &c.: or verily it is a thing meet, fit, or proper, for one's saying, &c.; or is a thing worthy, or deserving, of one's saying, &c.: of the measure مَفْعِلَةٌ, from إِنَّ. (Ḳ in the present art.) And إِنَّهُ لَمَئِنَّةٌ أَنْ يَفْعَلَ ذَاكَ Verily he is meet, fit, or proper, for doing that; or is worthy, or deserving, of doing that: or verily he is a person meet, fit, or proper, for doing that; or is a person worthy, or deserving, of doing that: and in like manner you say of two, and of more, and of a female: but مَئِنَّةٌ may be of the measure فَعِلَّةٌ [from مأن], i. e. a triliteral-radical word. (M.)

Root: ان - Entry: مَئِنَّةٌ Signification: A2

You also say, أَتَاهُ عَلَى مَئنَّة ذَاكَ, meaning He came to him at the time, or season, [or fit or proper time,] of that; and at the first thereof. (M.)

Indication of Authorities

Lexicological and Grammatical Terms

Lexicologists and Grammarians Cited