Classical Arabic - English Dictionary

by Edward William Lane (1801-1876)

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المس اله الو

1. ⇒ أله

أَلَهَ, (Ṣ, and so in some copies of the Ḳ,) with fet-ḥ, (Ṣ,) or أَلِهَ, (Mgh, Mṣb, and so in some copies of the Ḳ,) like تَعِبَ, aor. ـَ {يَأْلَهُ}, (Mṣb,) inf. n. إِلَاهَةٌ (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ) and أُلُوهَةٌ and أُلُوهِيَّپٌ, (Ḳ,) He served, worshipped, or adored; syn. عَبَدَ. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.) Hence the reading of I’Ab, [in the Ḳur vii. 124,] وَيَذَرَكَ وَإِلَاهَتَكَ [And leave thee, and the service, or worship, or adoration, of thee; instead of وَآلِهَتَكَ and thy gods, which is the common reading]; for he used to say that Pharaoh was worshipped, and did not worship: (Ṣ:) so, too, says, Th: and IB says that the opinion of I’Ab is strengthened by the sayings of Pharaoh [mentioned in the Ḳur lxxix. 24 and xxviii. 38], “I am your lord the most high,” and “I did not know any god of yours beside me.” (TA.)

Root: اله - Entry: 1. Dissociation: B

أَلِهَ, aor. ـَ {يَأْلَهُ}, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) inf. n. أَلَهٌ, (Ṣ,) He was, or became, confounded, or perplexed, and unable to see his right course; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) originally وَلِهَ. (Ṣ.)

Root: اله - Entry: 1. Signification: B2

أَلِهَ عَلَى فُلَانٍ He was, or became, vehemently impatient, or affected with vehement grief, or he manifested vehement grief and agitation, on account of such a one; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) like وَلِهَ. (Ṣ.)

Root: اله - Entry: 1. Signification: B3

أَلِهَ إِلَيْهِ He betook himself to him by reason of fright or fear, seeking protection; or sought, or asked, aid, or succour, of him: he had recourse, or betook himself, to him for refuge, protection, or preservation. (Ḳ.)

Root: اله - Entry: 1. Signification: B4

أَلِهَ بِالمَكَانِ He remained, stayed, abode, or dwelt, in the place. (MF.)

Root: اله - Entry: 1. Dissociation: C

أَلَهَهُ, (Ḳ,) like مَنَعَهُ, (TA,) [in the CK اَلِهَهُ,] He protected him; granted him refuge; preserved, saved, rescued, or liberated, him; aided, or succoured, him; or delivered him from evil: he rendered him secure, or safe. (Ḳ.)

2. ⇒ ألّه

تَأْلِيهٌ [inf. n. of أَلَّهَهُ He made him, or took him as, a slave; he enslaved him;] i. q. تَعْبِيدٌ. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)

Root: اله - Entry: 2. Signification: A2

[The primary signification of أَلَّهَهُ seems to be, He made him to serve, worship, or adore.]

Root: اله - Entry: 2. Signification: A3

[Accord. to Freytag, besides having the former of the two meanings explained above, it signifies He reckoned him among gods; held him to be a god; made him a god: but he does not mention his authority.]

5. ⇒ تألّه

تألّه He devoted himself to religious services or exercises; applied himself to acts of devotion. (JK, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.)


أُلْهَانِيَّةٌ: see إِلَاهَةٌ.

إِلٰهٌ / إِلَاهٌ

إِلٰهٌ, or إِلَاهٌ, [the former of which is the more common mode of writing the word,] is of the measure فعَالٌ (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ) in the sense of the measure مَفْعُولٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) like كِتَابٌ in the sense of مَكْتُوبٌ, and بِسَاطٌ in the sense of مَبْسُوطً, (Mṣb,) meaningمَأْلُوهٌ↓ [An object of worship or adoration; i. e. a god, a deity]; (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ) anything that is taken as an object of worship or adoration, accord. to him who takes it as such: (Ḳ:) with the article ال, properly, i. q. ٱللّٰهُ; [sec this word below;] but applied by the believers in a plurality of gods to what is worshipped by them to the exclusion of ٱللّٰه: (Mṣb:) pl. آلِهَةٌ: (Mṣb, TA:) which signifies idols: (JK, Ṣ, TA:) in the Ḳ, this meaning is erroneously assigned to إِلَاهَةٌ: (TA:) [not so in the CK; but there, الالِهَةُ is put in a place where we should read الإِلَاهَةُ, or إِلَاهَةُ without the article:] الإِلَاهَةُ↓ [is the fem. of الإِلَاهُ, and] signifies [the goddess: and particularly] the serpent: [(a meaning erroneously assigned in the CK to الآلِهَةُ; as also other meanings here following:) because it was a special object of the worship of some of the ancient Arabs:] (Ḳ:) or the great serpent: (Th:) and the [new moon; or the moon when it is termed] هِلَال: (Th, Ḳ:) and, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) as alsoإِلَاهَةُ↓, without ال, the former perfectly decl., and the latter imperfectly decl., (Ṣ,) andالأُلَاهَةُ↓, (IAạr, Ḳ,) andأُلَاهَةُ↓, (IAạr, TA,) andالأَلَاهَةُ↓, (Ḳ,) [and app.أَلَاهَةُ↓,] andالأَلِيهَةُ↓, (Ḳ,) the sun; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) app. so called because of the honour and worship which they paid to it: (Ṣ:) or the hot sun. (Th, TA.) [إِلهٌ is the same as the Hebrew אֱלוׄהַ and The Chaldee אֱלֶה; and is of uncertain derivaTion: accord. To some,] it is originally وِلَاهٌ, like as إِشَاحٌ is originally وِشَاحٌ; meaning that mankind yearn towards him who is thus called, [seeking protection or aid,] in their wants, and humble themselves to him in their afflictions, like as every infant yearns towards its mother. (TA.) [See also the opinions, cited below, on the derivation of ٱللّٰهُ.]

أَلَاهَةُ / الأَلَاهَةُ

أَلَاهَةُ and الأَلَاهَةُ: see إِلهٌ.

أُلَاهَةُ / الأُلَاهَةُ

أُلَاهَةُ and الأُلَاهَةُ: see إِلهٌ.

Root: اله - Entry: أُلَاهَةُ Dissociation: B

أُلَاهَةٌ: see إِلَاهَةٌ.


إِلَاهَةٌ inf. n. of 1, q. v. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.)

Root: اله - Entry: إِلَاهَةٌ Dissociation: B

Godship; divinity; (Ḳ;) as alsoأُلَاهَةٌ↓ (CK [not found by me in any MṢ. copy of the Ḳ]) andأُلْهَانِيَّةٌ↓. (Ḳ.)

Root: اله - Entry: إِلَاهَةٌ Dissociation: C

إِلَاهَةُ and الإِلَاهَةُ: see إِلهٌ.


الأَلِيهَةُ: see إِلهٌ.

[إِلٰهِىٌّ / إِلَاهِىٌّ]

[إِلٰهِىٌّ, or إِلَاهِىٌّ, Of, or relating to, God or a god; divine; theological: Hence, العِلْمُ الإِلهِىُّ or الإِلَاهِىٌّ: see what next follows.]

[الإِلٰهِيَّةُ / الإِلَاهِيَّةُ]

[الإِلٰهِيَّةُ, or الإِلَاهِيَّةُ, Theology; the science of the being and attributes of God, and of the articles of religious belief; also termed عِلْمُ الإِلهِيَّاتِ or الإِلَاهِيَّاتِ, andالعِلْمُ الإِلهِىُّ↓ or الإِلَاهِىُّ.]


ٱللّٰهُ, [written with the disjunctive alif اَللّٰهُ, meaning God, i. e. the only true god,] accord. to the most correct of the opinions respecting it, which are twenty in number, (Ḳ,) or more than thirty, (MF,) is a proper name, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) applied to the Being who exists necessarily, by Himself, comprising all the attributes of perfection; (TA;) a proper name denoting the true god, comprising all the excellent divine names; a unity comprising all the essences of existing things; (Ibn-El-ʼArabee, TA;) the ال being inseparable from it: (Mṣb:) not derived: (Lth, Mṣb, Ḳ:) or it is originally إِلهٌ, or إِلَاهٌ, (Sb, AHeyth, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) of the measure فِعَالٌ in the sense of the measure مَفْعُولٌ, meaning مَأْلُوهٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,*) with [the article] ال prefixed to it, (Sb, AHeyth, Ṣ, Mṣb,) so that it becomes الإِلَاهُ, (Sb, AHeyth, Mṣb,) then the vowel of the hemzeh is transferred to the ل [before it], (Mṣb,) and the hemzeh is suppressed, (Sb, AHeyth, Ṣ, Mṣb,) so that there remains ٱللّٰهُ, or الِلَاهُ, after which the former ل is made quiescent, and incorporated into the other: (Sb, AHeyth, Mṣb:) the suppression of the hemzeh is for the purpose of rendering the word easy of utterance, on account of the frequency of its occurrence: and the ال is not a substitute for the hemzeh; for were it so, it would not occur therewith in الإِلَاهُ: (Ṣ:) so says J; but IB says that this is not a necessary inference, because الإِلَاهُ applies to God (ٱللّٰهُ) and also to the idol that is worshipped; whereas ٱللّٰهُ applies only to God; and therefore, in using the vocative form of address, one may say, يَا اَللّٰهُ [O God], with the article ال and with the disjunctive hemzeh; but one may not say, يَا الإِلَاهُ either with the disjunctive or with the conjunctive hemzeh: (TA:) Sb allows that it may be originally لَاهٌ: see art. ليه: (Ṣ:) some say that it is from أَلِهَ, either because minds are confounded, or perplexed, by the greatness, or majesty, of God, or because He is the object of recourse for protection, or aid, in every case: or from أَلَهَهُ, meaning “he protected him,”, &c., as explained above: see 1, last sentence. (TA.) The ال is pronounced with the disjunctive hemzeh in using the vocative form of address [يَا اَللّٰهُ] because it is inseparably prefixed as an honourable distinction of this name; (Ṣ;) or because a pause upon the vocative particle is intended in honour of the name; (Ṣ in art. ليه;) and AAF says that it is also thus pronounced in a form of swearing; as in أَفَاَللّٰهِ لَتَفْعَلَنَّ [an elliptical phrase, as will be shown below, meaning Then, by God, wilt thou indeed do such a thing?]; though he denies its being thus pronounced because it is inseparable; regarding it as a substitute for the suppressed hemzeh of الإِلَاهُ: (Ṣ in the present art.:) Sb mentions this pronunciation in يَا اَللّٰهُ; and Th mentions the pronunciation of يَا ٱللّٰهُ also, with the conjunctive hemzeh: Ks, moreover, mentions, as used by the Arabs, the phrase يَلَهْ اَغْفِرْلِى [O God, forgive me], for يَا ٱللّٰهُ; but this is disapproved. (ISd, TA.) The word is pronounced in the manner termed تَفْخِيم, [i. e., with the broad sound of the lengthened fet-ḥ, and with a full sound of the letter ل,] for the purpose of showing honour to it; but when it is preceded by a kesreh, [as in بِٱللّٰهِ By God, and بِسْمِ ٱللّٰهِ In the name of God,] it is pronounced in the [contr.] manner termed تَرْقِيق: AḤát says that some of the vulgar say, لَاوَٱللّٰهْ [No, by God], suppressing the alif, which should necessarily be uttered, as in الرَّحْمنُ, which is in like manner written without alif; and he adds that some person has composed a verse in which the alif [in this word] is suppressed, erroneously. (Mṣb.) You say, اَللّٰهَ ٱللّٰهَ فِى كَذَا, [a verb being understood,] meaning Fear ye God, fear ye God, with respect to such a thing. (Marginal note in a copy of the Jámiʼ eṣ-Ṣagheer. [See another ex. voce كَرَّةٌ.]) And اَللّٰهَ لَأَفْعَلَنَّ and اَللّٰهِ لَأَفْعَلَنَّ [By God, I will assuredly do such a thing]: in the former is understood a verb significant of swearing; and in the latter, [or in both, for a noun is often put in the accus. case because of a particle understood,] a particle [such as بِ or وَ] denoting an oath. (Bḍ in ii. 1.) And لِلهِ مَا فَعَلْتُ, meaning وَٱللّٰهِ مَا فَعَلْتُ [By God, I did not, or have not done, such a thing]. (JK.) And لِلّهِ دَرُّكَTo God be attributed thy deed! (A in art. در:) or the good that hath proceeded from thee! or thy good deed! or thy gift! and what is received from thee! [and thy flow of eloquence! and the like]: a phrase expressive of admiration of anything: (TA in art. در:) [when said to an eloquent speaker or poet, it may be rendered divinely art thou gifted!]. And لِلّهِ دَرُّهُTo God be attributed his deed! [&c.]. (Ṣ and Ḳ in art. در.) And لِلّهِ القَائِلُ [meaning To God be attributed (the eloquence of) the sayer! or] how good, or beautiful, is the saying of the sayer, or of him who says [such and such words]! or it is like the phrase لِلّهِ دَرُّهُ, meaning † To God be attributed his goodness! and his pure action! (Ḥar p. 11.) And لِلّهِ فُلَانٌ [To God be attributed (the excel-lence, or goodness, or deed,, &c., of) such a one!] explained by Az as meaning wonder ye at such a one: how perfect is he! (Ḥar ibid.) [And لِلّهِ أَبُوكَ: see art. ابو.] And لَاهِ أَنْتَ, meaning لِلّهِ أَنْتَ [lit. To God be thou attributed! i. e. to God be attributed thine excellence! or thy goodness! or thy deed!, &c.]. (JK.) [Similar to لِلّهِ, thus used, is the Hebrew expression לֵאלׂהִים after an epithet signifying “great” or the like.] إِنَّالِلّهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ, in the Ḳur [ii. 151], said on the occasion of an affliction, means Verily to God we belong, as property and servants, He doing with us what He willeth, and verily unto Him we return in the ultimate state of existence, and He will recompense us. (Jel.) AZ mentions the phrase الحَمْدُلَاهِ [meaning الحَمْدُلِلّهِ Praise be to God]: but this is not allowable in the Ḳur-án: it is only related as heard from the Arabs of the desert, and those not knowing the usage of the Ḳur-án. (Az, TA.)

Root: اله - Entry: ٱللّٰهُ Signification: A2

اَللّهُمَّ↓ is an expression used in prayer; as also لَاهُمَّ; (JK, Mṣb;) meaning يَا اَللّٰهُ [O God]; the م being a substitute for [the suppressed vocative particle] يا; (Ṣ in art. ليه, and Bḍ in iii. 25;) but one says also, يَا اَللّهُمَّ, (JK, and Ṣ ibid,) by poetic licence: (Ṣ ibid:) or the meaning, accord. to some, is يَا اَللّٰهُ أُمَّنَا بِخَيْرٍ [O God, bring us good]; (JK, and Bḍ ubi suprà;) and hence the origin of the expression. (Bḍ.) You say also اَللّهُمَّ إِلَّا [which may be rendered, inversely, Unless, indeed; or unless, possibly]: the former word being thus used to denote that the exception is something very rare. (Mṭr in the commencement of his Expos. of the Maḳámát of El-Ḥareeree, and Ḥar pp. 52 and 53.) And اَللّهُمَّ نَعَمْ [which may be rendered, inversely, Yes, indeed; or yea, verily]: the former word being used in this case as corroborative of the answer to an interrogation, negative and affirmative. (Ḥar p. 563.)


اَللّٰهُمَّ: see what next precedes.


مَأْلُوهٌ: see إِلٰهٌ.

Indication of Authorities

Lexicological and Grammatical Terms

Lexicologists and Grammarians Cited