Classical Arabic - English Dictionary

by Edward William Lane (1801-1876)

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الد الف الق

1. ⇒ ألف

أَلِفَهُ, (T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) aor. ـَ {يَأْلَفُ}, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. إِلُفٌ (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ) and أَلْفٌ (Ḳ) and إِلَافٌ and وِلَافٌ, which is anomalous, and أَلَفَانٌ, (M, TA,) He kept, or clave, to it; (AʼObeyd, T, M, Mṣb,* TA;) namely, a thing, (AʼObeyd, T, M, TA,) or a place; (Ṣ, Mṣb, TA;) as also أَلَفَهُ, aor. ـِ {يَأْلِفُ}; (TA;) andآلفهُ↓, (AʼObeyd, T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb,) aor. يُؤْلِفُ (Ṣ, TA,) inf. n. إِيلَافٌ; (Ṣ, Mṣb, TA;) andآلفهُ↓, aor. يُؤَالِفُ, inf. n. مُؤَالَفَةٌ and إِلَافٌ: (Ṣ, Mṣb, TA:) [he frequented it, or resorted to it habitually; namely, a place:] he became familiar with it; or accustomed, or habituated, to it; namely, a thing: (AZ, T:) he became familiar, sociable, companionable, friendly, or amicable, with him: (AZ, T, Mṣb:) he loved, or affected, him; liked, approved, or took pleasure in, him. (Mṣb.) You say, أَلِفَتِ الطَّيْرُ الحَرَمَ [The birds kept to the sacred territory], and البُيُوتَ [the houses]: andآلَفَتِ↓ الظِّبَآءُ الرَّمْلِ The gazelles kept to the sands. (T.)

Root: الف - Entry: 1. Signification: A2

There are three manners of reading the passage in the Ḳur [evi. 1 and 2], لِإِيلَافِ↓ قُرَيْشٍ إِيلَافِهِمْ رِحْلَةَ الشِّتَآءِ وَالصَّيْفِ; the second and third being لِإِلَافِ and لِإِلْفِ; the first and second of which have been adopted; (Aboo-Is-ḥáḳ, T, TA;) and the third also; this being the reading of the Prophet [himself]: (TA:) [accord. to all these readings, the passage may be rendered, For the keeping of Kureysh, for their keeping to the journey of the winter and of the summer, or spring; the chapter going on to say, for this reason “let them worship the Lord of this House,”, &c.: or] the second and third readings are from أَلِفَ, aor. يَأْلَفُ; [and accord. to these readings, the passage may be rendered as above;] but accord. to the first reading, the meaning is, for the preparing and fitting out [&c.; i. e., preparing and fitting out men and beasts in the journey of the winter, &c.]: so says IAmb; and Fr explains in the same manner the third reading: but IAạr says that, accord. to this reading, the meaning is, the protecting [&c.]: he says that the persons who protected were four brothers, Háshim and ʼAbd-Shems and El-Muttalib and Nowfal, the sons of ʼAbd-Menáf: these gave protection to Kureysh in their procuring of corn: (T:) Háshim obtained a grant of security from the king of the Greeks, and Nowfal from Kisrà, and ʼAbd-Shems from the Nejáshee, and El-Muttalib from the kings of Himyer; and the merchants of Kureysh used to go to and from the great towns of these kings with the grants of security of these brothers, and none opposed them: Háshim used to give protection (يُؤْلِفُ [in the copies of the Ḳ يُؤَلِّفُ]) [to those journeying] to Syria, and ʼAbd-Shems to Abyssinia, and El-Muttalib to El-Yemen, and Nowfal to Persia: (T, Ḳ:*) orإِيلَاف↓ in the Ḳur signifies a covenant, or an obligation; and what resembles permission, (إِجَازَة, as in some copies of the Ḳ and in the TA,) or protection, (إِجَارَة, as in the CK,) with an obligation involving responsibility for safety; first obtained by Háshim, from the kings of Syria; (Ḳ,* TA;) and the explanation is, that Kureysh were dwelling in the sacred territory, (Ḳ,) having neither seed-produce nor udders [to yield them milk], (TA,) secure in the procuring of their provisions from other parts, and in their changes of place, in winter and summer, or spring; the people around them having their property seized; whereas, when any cause of mischief occurred to them, they said, “We are people of the sacred territory,” and then no one opposed them: (Ḳ:) so in the O: (TA:) or the ل is to denote wonder; and the meaning is, wonder ye at the ايلاف of Kureysh [&c.]: (Ḳ:) some say that the meaning is connected with what follows; i. e., let them worship the Lord of this House for the ايلاف [&c., agreeably with the first explanation which we have given]: others, that it is connected with what precedes; as J says; (TA;) the meaning being, I have destroyed the masters of the elephant to make Kureysh remain at Mekkeh, and for their uniting the journey of the winter and of the summer, or spring; that when they finished one, they should commence the other; (T, Ṣ;) and this is like the saying, ضَرَبْتُهُ لِكَذَا ضَرَبْتُهُ لِكَذَا َ لِكَذَا, with suppression of the [conjunctive] و: (Ṣ:) but Ibn-ʼArafeh disapproves of this, for two reasons: first, because the phrase “In the name of God”, &c. occurs between the two chapters: [Bḍ, however, mentions that in Ubeí's copy, the two compose one chapter:] secondly, because ايلاف signifies the covenants, or obligations, which they obtained when they went forth on mercantile expeditions, and whereby they became secure. (TA.) إِلَافٌ↓ [in like manner] signifies A writing of security, written by the king for people, that they may be secure in his territory: and is used by Musáwir Ibn-Hind in the sense of اِيتِلَافٌ [as is also إِلْفٌ,] when he says, in satirizing Benoo-Asad,

* زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّ إِخْوَتَكُمْ قُرَيْشٌ *
* لَهُمْ إِلْفٌ وَلَيْسَ لَكُمْ إِلَافُ *

meaning Ye asserted [that your brothers are Kureysh; i. e.,] that ye are like Kureysh: but how should ye be like them? for they have [an alliance whereby they are protected in] the trade of El-Yemen and Syria; and ye have not that [alliance]. (Ḥam p. 636.) [Hence,] إِلَافُ ٱللّٰهِ [a phrase used in the manner of an oath,] accord. to some, signifies The safeguard, or protection, of God: or, accord. to others, an honourable station from God. (TA.)

Root: الف - Entry: 1. Dissociation: B

أَلَفَهُ, aor. ـِ {يَأْلِفُ}, He gave him a thousand; (Ṣ, Ḳ) of articles of property, and of camels. (TA.)

2. ⇒ ألّف

ٱلّف بَيْنَهُمْ, inf. n. تَأْلِيفٌ, (T, Mṣb, Ḳ,) He united them, or brought them together, (T, Mṣb, TA,) after separation; (T, TA;) and made them to love one another; (Mṣb;) he caused union, or companionship, (أُلْفَة,) to take place between them. (Ḳ.) And أَلَّفْتُ بَيْنَ الشَّيْئَيْنِ, inf. n. as above, [I united, or put together, the two things.] (Ṣ.) And ألّف الشَّىْءَ He united, or connected, (T,) or gathered or collected or brought together, (M,) the several parts of the thing. (T, M.)

Root: الف - Entry: 2. Signification: A2

Hence, تَأْلِيفُ الكُتُبِ [The composition of books]. (T, TA.)

Root: الف - Entry: 2. Signification: A3

تَأْلِيفٌ is The putting many things into such a state that one name becomes applicable to them, whether there be to some of the parts a relation to others by precedence and sequence, or not: so that it is a more general term than تَرْتِيبٌ: (KT:) or the collecting together, or putting together, suitable things; from الالفة [i. e. الأُلْفَةُ]; and is a more particular term than تَرْكِيبٌ, which is the putting together things, whether suitable or not, or placed in order or not. (Kull p. 118.)

Root: الف - Entry: 2. Dissociation: B

أَلَّفُوا إِلَى كَذَا: see 5.

Root: الف - Entry: 2. Dissociation: C

ألّف أَلِفًا He wrote an alif; (Ḳ;) like as one says جَيَّمَ جِيمًا. (TA.)

Root: الف - Entry: 2. Dissociation: D

See also 4, in three places.

3. ⇒ آلف

آلفهُ: see 1, first sentence.

Root: الف - Entry: 3. Dissociation: B

آلف, (M, TA,) inf. n. مُؤَالَفَةٌ, (TA,) [app., He made a covenant with another to be protected during a journey for the purpose of trade, or traffic: (see 1:) and hence,] he (a man) traded, or trafficked. (M, TA.)

Root: الف - Entry: 3. Dissociation: C

شَاَرَةٌ مُؤَالَفَةً He made a condition with him for a thousand: (IAạr, M:) like as one says, شَارَطْتُهُ مُمَا آةً, meaning, for a hundred. (IAạr, M, Ḳ, in art. مأى.)

4. ⇒ آلف

آلفهُ, inf. n. إِيلَافٌ: see 1, in three places.

Root: الف - Entry: 4. Dissociation: B

آلفهُ الشَّىْءَ, (T, M,) or المَوْضِعَ, (Ṣ,) or مَكَانَ كَذَا, (Ḳ,) inf. n. as above, (T,) He made him to keep, or cleave, to the thing, or to the place, or to such a place. (T, Ṣ,* M, Ḳ.*)

Root: الف - Entry: 4. Signification: B2

آلَفْتُ الشَّىْءَ I joined, conjoined or united, the thing. (T.)

Root: الف - Entry: 4. Dissociation: C

آلَفْتُ القَوْمَ, (T,* Ṣ, Ḳ,*) inf. n. as above, (Ṣ,) I made the people, or company of men, to be a thousand complete [by adding to them myself]; (T, Ṣ, Ḳ, TA;) they being before nine hundred and ninety-nine. (T, TA.) And آلف العَدَدَ He made the number to be a thousand; as alsoأَلَّفَهُ↓: (M:) orألّف↓ الأَلْفَ he completed the thousand. (Ḳ.) And in like manner, (Ṣ,) آلَفْتُ الدَّرَاهِمَ I made the dirhems to be a thousand (Ṣ, Ḳ) complete. (Ṣ.) Andأَلَّفُو↓ لَهُمُ الأَعْمَارَ They said to them, May you live a thousand years. (A in art. عمر.)

Root: الف - Entry: 4. Dissociation: D

آلَفُوا They became a thousand (T, Ṣ, M) complete. (Ṣ.) And آلَفَتِ الدَّارَهِمُ The dirhems became a thousand (Ṣ Ḳ) complete. (Ṣ.)

5. ⇒ تألّف

تألّف القَوْمُ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) andٱئْتَلَفُوا↓ [written with the disjunctive alif اِيْتَلَفُوا], (T, Ḳ,) The people, or party, became united, or came together, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) [after separation, (see 2, of which each is said in the TA to be quasi-pass.,)] and loved one another: (Mṣb:) or the meaning of ٱئْتِلَافٌ↓ [and تَأَلُّفٌ also] is the being in a state of union, alliance, agreement, congruity, or congregation: (Mṣb:) and the being familiar, sociable, companionable, friendly, or amicable, one with another. (TA.) And تَأَلَّفَا is said of two things; [meaning They became united, or put together; (see 2;)] as alsoائتلفا↓. (Ṣ.) Andائتلف↓ الشَّىْءُ signifies The several parts of the thing kept, or clave, together. (M.) And تألّف It became put together in order. (M.)

Root: الف - Entry: 5. Signification: A2

تألّفوا They sought, desired, or asked, [a covenant to ensure them] protection, (IAạr, T, M,) إِلَى كَذَا [meaning in a journey for the purpose of trade, or traffic, to such a place, as is shown in the T by an explanation of the words of IAạr, كَانَ هَاشِمٌ يُؤْلِفُ إِلَى الشَّامِ, in a passage in which the foregoing signification is assigned to تألّفوا]; (M;) as alsoأَلَّفُوا↓ الى كذا. (M.)

Root: الف - Entry: 5. Dissociation: B

تألّفهُ He treated him with gentleness or blandishment, coaxed him, or wheedled him; (Ḳ;) behaved in a sociable, friendly, or familiar, manner with him; (TA;) attracted him, or allured him; and gave him a gift, or gifts; (T, Ḳ;*) in order to incline him to him: (Ḳ:) or he affected sociableness, friendliness, or familiarity, with him. (Mgh.) You say, تَأَلَّفْتُهُ عَلَى الإِسْلَامِ [I attracted him, or allured him; and gave him a gift, or gifts, in order to incline him; to embrace El-Islám]. (Ṣ.)

8. ⇒ ائتلف

see 5, in four places.


أَلْفٌ, meaning A certain number, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) well known, (M,) i. e. a certain round number, (Mṣb,) [namely a thousand,] is of the masc. gender: (T, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ:) you say ثَلَاثَةُ آلَافٍ [Three thousand], not ثَلَاثَ آلَافٍ; (TA;) and هٰذَا أَلْفٌ وَاحِدٌ [This is one thousand], not وَاحِدَةٌ; (Ṣ;) and أَلْفٌ أَقْرَعُ, [A complete thousand], (T, Ṣ,) not قَرْعَآءُ: (Ṣ:) it is not allowable to make it fem.: so say IAmb and others: (Mṣb:) or it is allowable to make it fem. as being a pl.: (T:) or, accord. to ISK, it is allowable to say, هٰذِهِ أَلْفٌ as meaning هٰذِهِ الدَّرَاهِمُ أَلْفٌ [These dirhems are a thousand]; (Ṣ, Ḳ;*) and Fr and Zj say the like: (Mṣb:) the pl. is آلُفٌ, applied to three, (M,) and آلَافٌ, (T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) applied to a number from three to ten, inclusively, (TA,) and أُلُوفٌ, (T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) used to denote more than ten; (T;) and الأَافُ [in the TA الأَلَفُ] is used by poetic licence for الآلَافُ, by suppression of the [radical] ل (M.)


إِلْفٌ [originally an inf. n. of أَلِفَهُ, q. v.,] He with whom one is familiar, sociable, companionable, friendly, or amicable; he to whom one keeps or cleaves; [a constant companion or associate; a mate; a fellow; a yoke-fellow; one who is familiar, &c., with another or others; (see مُؤَلَّفٌ;)] (M;) i. q.أَلِيفٌ↓; (T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ;) which is an act. part. n. of أَلِفَهُ; (Mṣb;) as is also آلِفٌ↓; (Mṣb, Ḳ;) andأَلِفٌ↓ also is syn. with أَلِيفٌ: (Ḳ:) the female is termed إِلْفَةٌ and إِلْفٌ; (M;) both of these signifying a woman with whom thou art familiar, &c., and who is familiar, &c., with thee: (Ḳ:) and the fem. of آلِفٌ↓ is آلِفَةٌ: (Ḳ:) the pl. of إِلْفٌ is آلَافٌ; (T, M;) which is also pl. ofأَلِفٌ↓: (TA:) and that ofأَلِيفٌ↓ is أَلَائِفُ (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA) and أُلَفَآءُ: (M, TA:) and that ofآلِفٌ↓ is أُلَّافٌ (T, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ) and آلَافٌ, like as أَنْصَارٌ is pl. of نَاصِرٌ, (TA,) and so, (M, TA,) in my opinion, [says ISd,] (M,) is أُلُوفٌ, like as شُهُودٌ is pl. of شَاهِدٌ, (M, TA,) though some say that it is pl. of إِلْفٌ: (M:) and the pl. ofآلِفَةٌ↓ is أَوَالِفُ and آلِفَاتٌ. (Ḳ.) You say, فثلَانٌ إِلْفِى andأَلِيفِى↓ [Such a one is my constant companion or associate,, &c.] (T.) And حَنَّتِ الإِلْفُ إِلَى إِلْفِ [The female mate yearned towards the mate]. (Ṣ.) And نَزَعَ البَعِيرُ إِلَى آلَافِهِ [The camel yearned towards his mates]. (T.) أُلَّافٌ, (T,) or آلَافٌ (TA,) is said by IAạr to mean Persons who keep to the large towns, or cities. (T, TA.) أُلُوفٌ in the Ḳur ii. 244 is said by some to be pl. of إِلْفٌ or ofآلِفٌ↓: but by others, to signify “thousands.” (Bḍ, L, TA.) أَوَالِفُ↓ الطَّيْرِ signifies The birds that keep to Mekkeh and the sacred territory: andأَوَالِفُ↓ الحَمَامِ Domestic pigeons. (T.)


أَلِفٌ: see إِلْفٌ, in two places.

Root: الف - Entry: أَلِفٌ Signification: A2

As some say, (O,) it also signifies A man having no wife. (O, Ḳ.)

Root: الف - Entry: أَلِفٌ Dissociation: B

One of the letters of the alphabet; (M;) the first thereof; (Ḳ;) as alsoأَلِيفٌ↓: (M:) Ks says that, accord. to the usage of the Arabs, it is fem., and so are all the other letters of the alphabet; [and hence its pl. is أَلِفَاتٌ;] but it is allowable to make it masc.: Sb says that every one of them is masc. and fem., like as is لِسَانٌ. (M.) See art. ا.

Root: الف - Entry: أَلِفٌ Signification: B2

A certain vein lying in the interior of the upper arm, [extending] to the fore arm: (Ḳ, TA:) so called as being likened to an ا: (TA:) the two are called الأَلِفَانِ. (Ḳ.)

Root: الف - Entry: أَلِفٌ Signification: B3

One of any kind of things: (Ḳ, TA:) as being likened to the ا; for it denotes the number one. (TA.)


أُلْفَةٌ A state of keeping or cleaving [to a person or thing]: (M:) a state of union, alliance, agreement, congruity, or congregation; (Mṣb;) a subst. from الاِئْتِلَافُ: (Mṣb, Ḳ, TA:) and, as such, (TA,) signifying also familiarity, sociableness, socialness, companionableness, friendliness, fellowship, companionship, friendship, and amity. (Mṣb, TA.*)


أَلْفِىٌّ Of, or relating to, or belonging to, the number termed أَلْفٌ [a thousand]. (TA.)


[قَامَةٌ أَلِفِيَّةٌ A stature resembling the letter alif. Often occurring in late works.]


Root: الف - Entry: إِلَافٌ Signification: A2

بَرْقٌ إِلَافٌ Lightning of which the flashes are consecutive or continuous. (TA.)


أَلُوفٌ Having much أُلْفَةٌ [meaning familiarity, sociableness,, &c.]: pl. أُلُفٌ. (Ḳ.)


أَلِيفٌ: see إِلْفٌ, in three places:

Root: الف - Entry: أَلِيفٌ Dissociation: B

آلِفٌ / آلِفَةٌ / أَوَالِفُ

آلِفٌ and آلِفَةٌ and أَوَالِفُ, the pl. of the latter: see إِلْفٌ, in seven places.


إِيْلَافٌ an inf. n.: and used as a subst.: see 1.


مَأْلَفٌ [An accustomed place;] a place to which a man keeps or cleaves; [which he frequents, or to which he habitually resorts;] with which he is familiar, or to which he is accustomed; (Mṣb;) a place with which men or camels [or birds and the like] are familiar,, &c. (Ḳ,* TA.)

Root: الف - Entry: مَأْلَفٌ Signification: A2

And hence, Leafy trees to which animals of the chase draw near. (AZ, Ḳ.)


مؤلفون, with fet-ḥ, [i. e. مُؤْلَفُونَ orمُؤَلَّفُونَ↓,] Possessors of thousands; or men whose camels have become, to each, a thousand. (TA.)


مُؤَلَّفٌ andمَأْلُوفٌ↓ Kept to, or clove to; applied to a thing [and to a person; and meaning when applied to the latter, with whom one is familiar, sociable,, &c.]. (T.) It is said in a trad.,المُؤْمِنُ إِلْفٌ مَأْلُوفٌ↓ [The believer is one who is familiar, or sociable,, &c., with others, and with whom others are familiar,, &c.]. (TA.)

Root: الف - Entry: مُؤَلَّفٌ Signification: A2

المُؤَلَّفَةُ قُلُوبُهُمْ Those whose hearts are made to incline, or are conciliated, by beneficence and love or affection: (Ṣ,* Mṣb:) as used in the Ḳur [ix. 60], it is applied to certain chief persons of the Arabs, whom the Prophet was commanded to attract, or allure, and to present with gifts, (T, Ḳ,) from the poor-rates, (TA,) in order that they might make those after them desirous of becoming Muslims, (T, Ḳ,) and lest care for things which they deemed sacred, or inviolable, together with the weakness of their intentions, should induce them to combine in hostility with the unbelievers against the Muslims; for which purpose, he gave them, on the day of Honeyn, eighty [in the TA two hundred] camels: (T:) they were certain men of eminence, of the Arabs, to whom the Prophet used to give gifts from the poor-rates; to some of them, to prevent their acting injuriously; and to some, from a desire of their becoming Muslims, (Mgh, Mṣb,) and their followers also; (Mṣb;) and to some, in order that they might remain stedfast as Muslims, because of their having recently become such; but when Aboo-Bekr became appointed to the government, he forbade this practice. (Mgh, Mṣb.)

Root: الف - Entry: مُؤَلَّفٌ Dissociation: B

أَلْفٌ مُؤَلَّفَةٌ [These are a thousand] made complete. (Ṣ.)

Root: الف - Entry: مُؤَلَّفٌ Signification: B2


[مُؤَلِّفٌ A composer of a book or books; an author.]


مَأْلُوفٌ: see مُؤَلَّفٌ, in two places.

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