Classical Arabic - English Dictionary

by Edward William Lane (1801-1876)

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ادى اذ اذا


إِذْ a word denoting past time: (Lth, T, Ṣ, M, L, Mughnee, Ḳ:) it is a noun, (Ṣ, L, Mughnee, Ḳ,) indecl., with its last letter quiescent; and properly is prefixed to a proposition; (Ṣ, L, Ḳ;) as in جِئْتُكَ إِذْ قَامَ زَيدٌ [I came to thee when Zeyd stood], and إِذْ زَيْدٌ قَائِمٌ and إِذْ زَيْدٌ يقُومُ [When Zeyd was standing]. (Ṣ, L.) The proposition to which it is prefixed is either nominal, as in [the words of the Ḳur viii. 26,] وَٱذْكُرُوا إِذْ أَنْتُمْ قَلِيلٌ [And remember ye when ye were few]; or verbal, having the verb in the pret. as to the letter and as to the meaning, as in [the Ḳur ii. 28, &c.,] وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ [And when thy Lord said unto the angels]; or verbal with the verb in the pret. as to the meaning but not as to the letter, as in [the Ḳur ii. 121,] وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرٰهِيمُ القَوَاعِدَ [And when Abraham was rearing the foundations]; all three of which kinds are comprised in the Ḳur where it is said, [ix. 40,] إِلَّا تَنْصُرُوهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ ٱللّٰهُ إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ثَانِىَ ٱثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِى الغَارِ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لَا تَحزَنْ إِنَّ ٱللّٰهَ مَعَنَا [If ye will not aid him, verily God aided him, when those who disbelieved expelled him, being the second of two, when they two were in the cave, when he was saying to his companion, Grieve not thou, for God is with us]. (Mughnee.) But sometimes one half of the proposition is suppressed, as in إِذْ ذَاكَ, [also written إِذَّاكَ,] meaning إِذْ ذَاكَ كَذٰلِكَ [When that was so], or إِذْ ذَاكَ كَائِنٌ [When that was, i. e. then, at that time]. (Mughnee.) And sometimes the whole of the proposition is suppressed, (M, Mughnee,) as being known, (Mughnee,) and tenween is substituted for it; the ذ receiving kesreh because of the occurrence of two quiescent letters together, (M, Mughnee,) namely the ذ and the tenween, (M,) and thus one says, يَوْمَئِذٍ; the kesreh of the ذ not being, as Akh holds it to be, the kesreh of declension, although اذ here occupies the place of a noun governed in the gen. case by another prefixed to it, (M, Mughnee,) for it still requires a proposition to be understood after it, (Mughnee,) and is held to be indecl. (M, Mughnee) by general consent, like كَمْ and مَنْ, (M,) as being composed of two letters. (Mughnee.) [J says,] when إِذْ is not prefixed to a proposition, it has tenween: (Ṣ:) and hence Aboo-Dhu-eyb says, (Ṣ, M,)

* نَهَيْتُكَ عَنْ طِلَابِكَ أُمَّ عَمْرٍو *
* بِعَافِيَةٍ وَأَنْتَ إِذٍ صَحِيحُ *

[I forbade thy suing Umm-ʼAmr in health, thou being then sound]; (Ṣ, M, L, Mughnee, TA; [but in two copies of the Ṣ, for بِعَافِيَةٍ, I find بِعَاقِبَةٍ; and in the L it is without any point;]) in which [J says] the poet means حِينَئِذٍ, like as one says يَوْمَئذٍ and لَيْلَتَئِذٍ: (Ṣ:) and Fr says that some of the Arabs say, كَانَ كَذَا و كَذَا وَهُوَ إِذٍ صَبِىٌّ, meaning هُوَ إِذْ ذَاكَ صَبِىٌّ [Such and such things were, he being then a boy]. (T.) إِذِى also occurs for اذ [app. إِذٍ, but whether this or إِذْ is not clear in the MṢ. from which I take this]. (M.) When إِذٍ is adjoined to nouns signifying times, the Arabs join it therewith in writing, in certain instances: namely حِينَئِذٍ [At that time, or then], and يَوْمَئِذٍ [In, or on, or at, that day], and لَيْلَتَئِذٍ [In, or on, or at, that night], and غَدَاتَئِذٍ [In, or on, that morning], and عَشِيَّتَئِذٍ [In, or on, that evening], and سَاعَتَئِذٍ [In that hour: or at that time; then], and عَامَئِذٍ [In that year], [and وَقْتَئِذٍ At that time; then]; but they did not say الآنَئِذٍ, because الآنَ denotes the nearest present time, except in the dial. of Hudheyl, in which it has been found to occur. (T.) When it is followed by a verb, or by a noun not having the article ال prefixed to it, or [rather] by any movent letter, the ذ of إِذْ is quieseent; but when it is followed by a noun with ال, [or by any ٱ,] the ذ is mejroorah, as in the saying,

* إِذِ القَوْمُ كَانُوا نَازِلِينَ بِكَاظِمَهْ *

[When the people, or company of men, were alighting, or taking up their abode, at Kádhimeh]. (T.)

Root: اذ - Entry: إِذْ Signification: A2

In general, (Mughnee, Ḳ,) it is an adverbial noun denoting past time, (M, Mughnee, Ḳ,) when it is a noun denoting such time, (Mughnee, Ḳ,) as in وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ [explained above], (M,) and in فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ ٱللّٰهُ إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا [also explained above, and in other instances already mentioned]: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) in the former of which instances, AO says that it is redundant; (M, Mughnee;) but Aboo-Is-ḥáḳ says that this is a bold assertion of his; (M;) [and IHsh says,] this assertion is of no account, and so is that of him who says that it here denotes certainty, like قَدْ: (Mughnee:) [J holds the opinion of AO on this point; for he says,] إِذْ is sometimes redundant, like إِذَا, as in the saying in the Ḳur [ii. 48], وَإِذْ وَاعَدْنَا مُوسَى, meaning وَوَاعَدْنَا مُوسَى [And We appointed a time with Moses; but instances of this kind are most probably elliptical: see the next sentence]. (Ṣ.) As a noun denoting past time, it is [said to be] also an objective complement of a verb, as in [the Ḳur vii. 84,] وَٱذْكُرُوا إِذْ كُنْتُمْ قَلِيلاً [And remember ye when ye were few]: (Mughnee, Ḳ:) and generally in the commencements of narratives in the Ḳur, it may be an objective complement of أُذْكُرْ understood, as in وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ [before cited], and the like. (Mughnee: but see the third of the sentences here following.) As such, it is [said to be] also a substitute for the objective complement of a verb, as in [the Ḳur xix. 16,] وَٱذْكُرْ فِى ٱلْكِتَابِ مَرْيَمَ إِذِ ٱنْتَبَذَتْ [And mention thou, or remember thou, in the Scripture, Mary, the time when she withdrew aside], where اذ is a substitute of implication for مريم. (Mughnee, Ḳ: but see the second of the sentences here following.) As such, it also has prefixed to it a noun of time, of such a kind that it is without need thereof, as in يَوْمَئِذٍ, or not of such a kind that it is without need thereof, as in [the Ḳur iii. 6,] بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا [After the time when Thou hast directed us aright]. (Mughnee, Ḳ.) And it is generally asserted, that it never occurs otherwise than as an adverbial noun, or as having a noun prefixed to it; that in the like of وَٱذْكُرُوا إِذْ كُنْتُمْ قَلِيلاً, it is an adverbial noun relating to an objective complement suppressed, i. e. وَٱذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ ٱللّٰهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنْتُمْ قَلِيلاً [And remember ye the grace of God towards you when ye were few]; and in the like of إِذِ ٱنْتَبَذَتْ, that it is an adverbial noun relating to a suppressed prefixed noun to [that which becomes by the suppression] the objective complement of a verb, i. e. [in this instance] وَٱذْكُرْ قِصَّةَ مَرْيَمَ [And mention thou, or remember thou, the case of Mary]: and this assertion is strengthened by the express mention of the [proper] objective complement in [the Ḳur iii. 98,] وَٱذْكُروا نِعْمَةَ ٱللّٰهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنْتُمْ أَعْدَآءً [And remember ye the grace of God towards you when ye were enemies]. (Mughnee.)

Root: اذ - Entry: إِذْ Signification: A3

Also, (Mughnee, Ḳ,) accord. to some, (T, Mughnee,) it is used (T, Mughnee, Ḳ) as a noun (Mughnee, Ḳ) to indicate future time, (T, Mughnee, Ḳ,) and إِذَا is said to denote past time, (T,) [i. e.] each of these occurs in the place of the other; (TA;) the former being used to indicate future time in the Ḳur [xxxiv. 50], where it is said, وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ فَزِعُوا [And couldst thou see the time when they shall be terrified], meaning the day of resurrection; this usage being allowable, says Fr, only because the proposition is like one expressing a positive fact, since there is no doubt of the coming of that day; (T;) and in [the Ḳur xcix. 4,] يَوْمَئِذٍ تُحَدِّثُ أَخْبَارَهَا [On that day, she (the earth) shall tell her tidings]; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) this being generally regarded as similar to the expression of a future event which must necessarily happen as though it had already happened; but it may be urged in favour of those who hold a different opinion that it is said in the Ḳur [xl. 72 and 73], فَسَوْفَ يَعْلَمُونَ إِذِ الأَغلَالُ فِى أَعْنَاقِهِمْ [They shall hereafter know, when the collars shall be on their necks]; for يعلمون is a future as to the letter and the meaning because of its having سوف conjoined with it, and it governs اذ, which is therefore in the place of إِذَا. (Mughnee.)

Root: اذ - Entry: إِذْ Signification: A4

It also indicates a cause, as in [the Ḳur xliii. 38,] لَنْ يَنْفَعَكُمُ ٱلْيَوْمَ إِذْ ظَلَمْتُمْ [It will not profit you this day, since, or because, ye have acted wrongfully], (Mughnee, Ḳ,) i. e. because of your having acted wrongfully in the sublunary state of existence; (Bḍ, Mughnee;) but it is disputed whether it be in this instance a particle in the place of the causative ل, or an adverbial noun: (Mughnee:) Aboo-ʼAlee seems to hold that اذ ظلمتم [as meaning when ye have acted wrongfully] is a substitute for, or a kind of repetition of, اليوم; an event happening in the present world being spoken of as though it happened in the world to come because the latter immediately follows the former. (IJ, M, L, Mughnee.) You say also, الحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ إِذْ جِئْتَ [Praise be to God because, or that, thou camest, or hast come]. (Ṣ in art. جيأ.)

Root: اذ - Entry: إِذْ Signification: A5

It is also used to denote one's experiencing the occurrence of a thing when he is in a particular state; (Ṣ, L;) or to denote a thing's happening suddenly, or unexpectedly; (Ṣ, Mughnee, Ḳ;) like إِذَا; (Ṣ;) and in this case is only followed by a verb expressing an event as a positive fact, (Ṣ, L,) and occurs after بَيْنَا and بَيْنَمَا; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) as [in exs. voce بَيْنَ; and] in بَيْنَمَا أَنَا كَذَا إِذْ جَآءَ زَيْدٌ [While I was thus, or in this state, lo, or behold, or there, or then, at that time, (accord. to different authorities, as will be seen below,) Zeyd came]; (Ṣ, L;) and as in the saying of a poet,

* اِسْتَقْدِرِ ٱللّٰهَ خَيْراً وَٱرْضَيَنَّ بِهِ *
* فَبَيْنَمَاٱلْعُسْرُ إِذ دَارَتْ مَيَاسِيرُ *

[Beg thou God to appoint for thee good, and do thou be content therewith; for while there has been difficulty, lo, easy circumstances have come about]: (Mughnee, Ḳ:*) but it is disputed whether it be [in this case] an adverbial noun of place, (Mughnee, Ḳ,) as Zj and AḤei hold; (TA;) or of time, (Mughnee, Ḳ,) as Mbr holds; (TA;) or a particle denoting the sudden, or unexpected, occurrence of a thing, (Mughnee, Ḳ,) as IB and Ibn-Málik hold; (TA;) or a corroborative, i. e. [grammatically] redundant, particle, (Mughnee, Ḳ,) an opinion which Ibn-Ya'eesh holds, and to which Er-Raḍee inclines. (TA.)

Root: اذ - Entry: إِذْ Signification: A6

It is also a conditional particle, but only used as such coupled with ما, (Ṣ, L, Mughnee,*) and causes two aorists to assume the mejzoom form, (Mughnee,) as when you say, إِذْمَا تَأْتِنِى آتِكَ [When, or whenever, thou shalt come to me, I will come to thee], like as you say, إِنْ تأْتِنِى وَقْتًا آتِكَ [If thou come to me at some, or any, time, I will come to thee]; and you say also إِذْمَا أَتَيْتَ [like as you say, إِنْ أَتَيْتَ, using the pret. in the sense of the future]: (Ṣ, L:) it is a particle accord. to Sb, used in the manner of the conditional إِنْ; but it is an adverbial noun accord. to Mbr and Ibn-Es-Sarráj and El-Fárisee. (Mughnee.)

Root: اذ - Entry: إِذْ Signification: A7

[What I have translated from the Ṣ, L, Ḳ, and TA, in this art., is mostly from فصل الهمزة of باب الذال: the rest, from باب الالف اللينّة.]

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