Classical Arabic - English Dictionary

by Edward William Lane (1801-1876)

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اخر اخو اد

1. ⇒ أخوأخى

أَخَوْتَ, [third pers. أَخَا,] (Ṣ, Ḳ,) aor. تَأْخُو, (Ṣ,) inf. n. أُخُوَّةٌ; (Ṣ, Ḳ, &c.;) andآخَيْتَ↓, (Ḳ, TA,) [in the CK اَخَيْتُ, which is wrong in respect of the pers., and otherwise, for it is correctly] with medd, (TA,) inf. n. إِخَآءٌ and مُؤَاخَاةٌ; (Lth;) andتَأَخَّيْتَ↓; (Ḳ;) Thou becamest a brother [in the proper sense of this word, and also as meaning a friend, or companion, or the like]. (Ṣ,* Ḳ,* TA.) أُخُوَّةٌ↓ is also [used as] a simple subst., (TA,) signifying Brotherhood; fraternity; the relation of brother; as also↓إِخَآءٌ and مُؤَاخاةٌ; andتَأَخٍ↓: (Lth, TA:) and the relation of sister. (Ṣ.) You say, بَيْنِى وَبَيْنَهُ أُخُوَّةٌ andإِخَآءٌ↓ [&c., meaning] Between me and him is brotherhood. (JK, TA.) Andبَيْنَ السَّمَاحَةِ وَالحَمَاسَةِ تَأَخٍ↓[Between liberality and courage is a relation like that of brothers]. (TA.) And خُوَّةٌ is a dial. var. of أُخُوَّةٌ, occurring in a trad. (IAth, TA.)

Root: اخو - Entry: 1. Dissociation: B

[It is also trans.] You say, أَخَوْتُ عَشَرَةً I was, or became, a brother to ten. (TA.)

2. ⇒ أخّوأخّى

أَخَّيْتُ لِلدَّابَّةِ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) or الدَّابَّةَ, (Mṣb, [so accord. to a copy of that work, but probably this is a mistranscription,]) inf. n. تَأْخِيَةٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) I made an آخِيَّة [q. v.] for the beast, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) and tied the beast therewith; (Mṣb;) [and so, app.,آخَيْتُ↓ (which, if correct, is probably of the measure أَفْعَلْتُ); for it is related that] an Arab of the desert said to another,آخِ↓ لِى آخِيَّةً أَرْبِطُ إَلَيْهَا مُهْرِى [Make thou for me an آخيّة to which I shall tie my colt]. (TA.) And you say,آخِى↓ فُلَانٌ فِى فُلَانٍ آخِيَّةً فَكَفَرَهَاSuch a one did a benefit to such a one, and he was ungrateful for it. (TA.) [But perhaps آخِ and آخَى in these two exs. are mistranscriptions for أَخِّ and أَخَّى.]

3. ⇒ آخوآخى

آخاهُ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) vulgarly وَاخَاهُ, (Ṣ,) or the latter is a dial. var. of weak authority, (Ḳ,* TA,) said by some to be of the dial. of Teiyi, (TA,) inf. n. مُؤَاخَاةٌ and إِخآءٌ (Ṣ, Ḳ) and وِخَآءٌ, (Ḳ) and [quasi-inf. n.] إِخَاوَةٌ↓ (Fr, Ḳ) and وِخَاوَةٌ, (CK,) He fraternized with him; acted with him in a brotherly manner: (Ṣ,* Ḳ,* PṢ, TḲ:) AʼObeyd mentions, on the authority of Yz, آخَيْتُ and وَاخَيْتُ, and آسَيْتُ and وَاسَيْتُ, and آكَلْتُ and وَاكَلْتُ: the pret. is said to be thus assimilated to [a form of] the fut.; for they used [sometimes] to say, يُوَاخِى, changing the hemzeh into و. (IB, TA.)

Root: اخو - Entry: 3. Signification: A2

It is said in a trad., آخَى بَيْنَ المُهَاجِرِينَ وَالأَنْصَارِ, meaning He united the emigrants [to El-Medeeneh] with the assistants [previously dwel-ling there] by the brotherhood of El-Islám and of the faith. (TA.) You say also, آخَيْتُ بَيْنَ الشَّيْئَنْنِ [I united the two things as fellows, or pairs]; and sometimes one says, وَاخَيْتُ, like as one says, وَاسَيْتُ, for آسَيْتُ; mentioned by ISk. (Mṣb.)

Root: اخو - Entry: 3. Signification: A3

See also 1, in three places.

4. ⇒ آخى

see 2, in three places.

5. ⇒ تأخّوتأخّى

تَأَخَّيْتَ, and the inf.n. تَأَخٍ: see 1, in three places.

Root: اخو - Entry: 5. Dissociation: B

تَأَخَّيْتُ أَخًا I adopted a brother: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or [تَأَخَّيْتُهُ signifies] I called him brother. (Ḳ.)

Root: اخو - Entry: 5. Signification: B2

تَأَخَّيْتُ الشَّىْءَ, (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA,) or بِالشَّىْ, (Mṣb,) I sought, endeavoured after, pursued, or endeavoured to reach or attain or obtain, the thing; (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, TA;) as the brother does the brother; and in the same manner the verb is used with a man for its object: but تَوَخَّيْتُ, in the same sense, is more common. (TA.) You say, تَأَخَّيْتُ مَحَبَّتَكَ I sought,, &c., thy love, or affection. (TA in art. وخى.)

6. ⇒ تآخوتآخى

تَآخَيَا They became brothers, or friends or companions or the like, to each other. (Ṣ,* TA.)


أَخٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) originally أَخَوٌ, (Kh, Ṣ, Mṣb,) as is shown by the first of its dual forms mentioned below, and by its having a pl. like آبَآءٍ, (Ṣ,) and أَخٌّ, (Ḳ,) with the second letter doubled to compensate for the و suppressed, as is the case in أَبٌّ, (TA,) andأَخًا↓, [like أَبًا,] andأَخُو↓, (IAạr, Ḳ, TA,[the last, with the article prefixed to it, erroneously written in the CK الاُخُوٌّ,]) andأَخْوٌ↓, like دَلْوٌ, (Kr, Ḳ,) a well-known term of relationship, (Ḳ, TA,) i. e. A brother; the son of one's father and mother, or of either of them: and also applied to a foster-brother: (TA:) and † a friend; and a companion, an associate, or a fellow: (Ḳ:) derived from آخِيَّةٌ [q. v.]; as though one أَخ were tied and attached to another like as the horse is tied to the آخيّة: (Ḥar p. 42:) or, accord. to some of the grammarians, it is from وَخَى meaning قَصَدَ; because the أَخ has the same aim, endeavour, or desire, as his أَخ: (TA:) when أَخ is prefixed to another noun, its final vowel is prolonged: (Kh:) you say, هذَا أَخُوكَ [This is thy brother,, &c.], and مَرَرْتُ بِأَخِيكَ [I passed by thy brother,, &c.], and رَأَيْتُ أَخَاكَ [I saw thy brother,, &c.]: (Ṣ: [in which it is also asserted that one does not say أَخُو without prefixing it to another noun; but this is inconsistent with the assertion of IAạr and F, that الأَخُو is a syn. of الأَخُ:]) the dual is أَخَوَانِ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳur xlix. 10, Ḥam p. 434,) or أَخْوَانِ, with the خ quiescent, (TA, [but this I have found nowhere else,]) and some of the Arabs say أَخَانِ, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) and Kr mentions أَخُوَانِ, with damm to the خ, said by IB to occur in poetry, and held by ISd to be dual of أَخُو, with damm to the خ: (TA:) the pl. is إِخْوَةٌ and إِخْوَانٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) the former generally applied to brothers, and the latter to friends [or the like], (T, Ṣ,*) but not always, as in the Ḳur xlix. 10, where the former does not denote relationship, and in xxiv. 60 of the same, where the latter does denote relationship, (T, TA,) and sometimes the former is applied to a [single] man, as in the Ḳur iv. 12, (Ṣ,) and أُخْوَةٌ, (Fr, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, [in the CK اَخْوَةٌ,]) or this is a quasi-pl. n., (Sb, TA,) and أُخْوَانٌ, (Kr, Mṣb, Ḳ,) and آخَآءٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) like آبَآءٌ, (Ṣ,) and أُخُوٌّ, and أُخُوَّةٌ, (ISd, Ḳ,) the last mentioned by Lḥ, and thought by ISd to be formed from the next preceding by the addition of ة characterizing the pl. as fem., (TA,) and أَخُونَ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) and اخاوون. (Mṣb: [there written without any syll. signs, and I have not found it elsewhere.]) The fem. of أَخٌ is أُخْتٌ↓ [meaning A sister: and † a female friend,, &c.]: (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.:) written with damm to show that the letter which has gone from it is و; (Ṣ;) the ت being a substitute for the و; (TA;) not to denote the fem. gender, (Ḳ, TA,) because the letter next before it is quiescent: this is the opinion of Sb, and [accord. to SM] it is the correct opinion: for Sb says that if you were to use it as a proper name of a man, you would make it perfectly decl.; and if the ت were to denote the fem. gender, the name would not be perfectly decl.; though in one place he incidentally says that it is the sign of the fem. gender, through inadvertence: Kh, however, says that its ت is [originally] ه [meaning ة]: and Lth, that أُخْتٌ is originally أَخَةٌ: and some say that it is originally أَخْوَةٌ: (TA:) the dual. is أُخْتَانِ: (Kh:) and the pl. is أَخَوَاتٌ. (Kh, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.) The saying لَا أَخَالَكَ بِفُلَانٍ [Thou hast no brother, or † friend, in such a one] means لَيْسَ لَكَ بِأَخٍ [such a one is not a brother, or friend, to thee]. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) It is said in a prov., مَنْ لَكَ بِأَخِيكَ كُلِّهِ [Who will be responsible to thee for thy brother, or † thy friend, altogether? i. e., for his always acting to thee as a brother, or friend]. (JK.) And in another, رُبَّ أَخٍ لَكَ لَمْ تَلِدْهُ أُمُّكَ [† There is many a brother to thee whom thy mother has not brought forth]. (TA.) And in another, أَخُوكَ أَمِ الذَّئْبُ [Is it thy brother, or the wolf?]; said in suspecting a thing: as also أَخُوكَ أَمِ اللَّيْلُ [Is it thy brother, or is it the night that deceives thee?]. (Ḥar p. 554.) And another saying is, الرُّمْحُ أَخُوكَ وَرُبَّمَا خَانَكَ [† The spear is thy brother, but sometimes, or often, it is unfaithful to thee]. (TA.)

Root: اخو - Entry: أَخٌ.1 Signification: A2

Ibn-ʼArafeh says that when أُخُوَّةٌ does not relate to birth, it means conformity, or similarity; and combination, agreement, or unison, in action: hence the saying, هذَا الثَّوْبُ أَخُو هذَا [† This garment, or piece of cloth, is the like, or fellow, of this]: and hence the saying in the Ḳur [xvii. 29], كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِThey are the likes, or fellows, of the devils: and in the same [xliii. 47], إِلَّا هِىَ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ أُخْتِهَا↓But it was greater than its like, or fellow; i. e., than what was like to it in truth, &c. (TA.) It is said in a trad., النَّوْمُ أَخُ المَوْتِ [Sleep is the like of death]. (El-Jámiʼ eṣ-Ṣagheer.) One says also, لَقِىَ فُلَانٌ أَخَا المَوْتِSuch a one met with the like of death. (Mṣb, TA.) And they said,وَمَاهُ آللّٰهُ بِلَيْلَپٍ لَا أُخْتَ↓ لَهَا [† God afflicted him with a night having none like to it], i. e., a night in which he should die. (TA.) And لَا أُكَلِّمُهُ إِلَّا أَخَا السِّرارِI will not speak to him save the like of secret discourse. (Aṣ, TA.) [And hence,]أُخْتَا↓ سُهَيْلٍ [† The two sisters of Canopus;] the two stars called الشّعْرَى العَبُورُ and الشّعْرَى الغُمَيْصَآءُ. (Ṣ and Ḳ in art. شعر, q. v.)

Root: اخو - Entry: أَخٌ.1 Signification: A3

يَاَ أَخَا بَكْرٍ, or تَمِيمٍ, means † O thou of [the tribe of] Bekr, or Temeem. (Ḥam p. 284.)

Root: اخو - Entry: أَخٌ.1 Signification: A4

Lh mentions, on the authority of Abu-d-Deenár and Ibn-Ziyád, the saying, القُمْمُ بِأَخِى الشَّرَّ, as meaning † The people, or company of men, are in an evil state or condition. (TA.) [But accord. to others,] one says, تَرَكْتُهُ بِأَخِى الخَيْرِ, meaning ‡ I left him in an evil state or condition: (JK,* Mṣb, Ḳ, TA:) and بِأَخِى الشَّرِّin a good state or condition. (TA.)

Root: اخو - Entry: أَخٌ.1 Signification: A5

You say also, هُوَأَخُو الصَّدْقِHe is one who cleaves, or keeps, to veracity. (Mṣb.)

Root: اخو - Entry: أَخٌ.1 Signification: A6

[أِخُو, as a prefixed noun, is also used in the sense of أَهْلُ, meaning † Worthy, or deserving, of a thing: and meet, fit, or fitted, for it. So in the phrase أَخُو ثِقَةٍWorthy, or deserving, of trust, or confidence; expl. by W (p. 91) as meaning a person in whom one trusts, or confides. And so in the prov., لَيْسَ أَخُو الكِظَاظِ مَنْ يَسْأَمُهُHe who is fit, or fitted, for vehement striving for the mastery is not he who turns away from it with disgust: see art. كظ.]

Root: اخو - Entry: أَخٌ.1 Signification: A7

It is also used in the sense of ذُو: as in the phrase, هُوَأَخُو الغِنَى [† He is possessed, or a possessor, of wealth, or competence, or sufficiency]. (Mṣb.) [So too in the phrase, أَخُو الخَيْرِPossessed, or a possessor, of good, or of what is good. And in like manner,] أَخُو الخَنَعِ means [ذُو الخَنَعِ, i. e. ذُو الذِّلَّةِ, i. e.] الّذَّلِيلُ [† The low, base, or abject]. (Ḥam p. 44.) [So too] سَيْرُنَا أَخُو الجِيْدِ means [سَيْرُنَا ذُوالجَيْدِ, i. e.] سَيْرُنَا جَاهِدٌ [† Our journeying is laborious: see an ex. in the first paragraph of art. عدر]. (TA.)

Root: اخو - Entry: أَخٌ.1 Signification: A8

حُمَّى الأَخَوَيْنِA fever that affects the patient two days, and quits him two days; or that attacks on Saturday, and quits for three days, and comes [again] on Thursday; and so on. (Mṣb.)

Root: اخو - Entry: أَخٌ.1 Signification: A9

دَمُ الأَخَوَيْنِ: see دَمٌ, in art. دمى.


أَخًا: see أَخٌ.


أَخْوٌ: see أَخٌ.


أَخُو: see أَخٌ.


أُخْتٌ: see أَخٌ, in four places.

[أُخَيٌّ / أُخَيَّةٌ]

[أُخَيٌّ and أُخَيَّةٌ dims. of أَخٌ and أُخْتٌ.]


أَخَوِىٌّ Brotherly; fraternal; of, or relating to, a brother, and a friend or companion: and also, sisterly; of, or relating to, a sister; because you say أَخَوَاتٌ [meaning “sisters”]; but Yoo used to say أُخْتِىُّ↓, which is not agreeable with analogy. (Ṣ, TA.)


أُخْتِىُّ: see أَخَوِىُّ.


إِخْوَانٌ, besides being a pl. of أَخٌ, q. v., is a dial. var. of خِوَانٌ. (TA. [See art. خون.])


إِخَاوَةٌ: see 3.


أُخُوَّةٌ an inf. n. of 1: and also [used as] a simple subst. (TA.) See 1.

Root: اخو - Entry: أُخُوَّةٌ Signification: A2

When it does not relate to birth, it means † Conformity, or similarity; and combination, agreement, or unison, in action. (Ibn-ʼArafeh, TA.)


آخِيَّةٌ, (Lth, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) originally of the measure فَاعُولَةٌ, [i. e. آخُويَةٌ,] (Mṣb,) and آخِيَةٌ, (Lth, Mṣb, Ḳ,) and أَخِيَّةٌ, (JK, Ḳ, TA, [but in the Ḳ the orthography of these three words is differently expressed in different copies, and somewhat obscurely in all that I have seen,]) A piece of rope of which the two ends are buried in the ground, (ISk, JK, Ṣ,) with a small staff or stick, or a small stone, attached thereto, (ISK, Ṣ,) a portion thereof, resembling a loop, being apparent, or exposed, to which the beast is tied; (ISk, JK, Ṣ;) it is made in soft ground, as being more commodious to horses than pegs, or stakes, protruding from the ground, and more firm in soft ground than the peg, or stake: (TA:) or a loop tied to a peg, or stake, driven [into the ground], to which the beast is attached: (Mṣb:) or a stick, or piece of wood, (Ḳ, TA,) placed crosswise (TA) in a wall, or in a rope of which the two ends are buried in the ground, the [other] end [or portion] protruding, like a ring, to which the beast is tied: (Ḳ, TA:) or a peg, or stake, to which horses are tied: (Ḥar p. 42:) [see also آرِىُّ:] the pl. of the first is أَوَاخِىُّ; (JK, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ;*) and of the second, أوَاخٍ; (Mṣb;) and of the third, أَخَايَا, (JK, Ḳ,*) like as خَطَايَا is pl. of خَطِيَّةٌ. (TA.) In a trad., the believer and belief are likened to a horse attached to his آخيّة; because the horse wheels about, and then returns to his آخيّة; and the believer is heedless, and then returns to believe. (TA.) And in another, men are forbidden to make their backs like the أَخَايَا of beasts; i. e., in prayer; meaning that they should not arch them therein, so as to make them like the loops thus called. (TA.)

Root: اخو - Entry: آخِيَّةٌ Signification: A2

Also i. q. طُنُبٌ; (Ḳ;) i. e. The kind of tent-rope thus called. (TA in art. طنب, q. v.)

Root: اخو - Entry: آخِيَّةٌ Signification: A3

And † A sacred, or an inviolable, right or the like; syn. حُرْمَةٌ and ذِمَّةٌ. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) You say, لِفُلَانٍ أَوَاخِىُّ وَأَسْبَابٌ تُرْعَى [† To such a one belong sacred, or inviolable, rights, and ties of relationship and love, to be regarded]. (Ṣ.) And لَهُ عِنْدِى آجِيَّةٌHe has, with me, or in my estimation, a strong, sacred, or inviolable, right; and a near tie or connexion, or means of access or intimacy or ingratiation. (TA.)

Root: اخو - Entry: آخِيَّةٌ Signification: A4

In a trad. of ʼOmar, in which it is related that he said to El-ʼAbbás, أَنْتَ آخِيَّةُ آبَآءِ رَسُولِ اَللّٰهِ, it is used in the sense of بَقِيَّةَ; [and the words may therefore be rendered Thou art the most excellent of the ancestors of the Apostle of God;] as though he meant, thou art he upon whom one stays himself, and to whom one clings, of the stock of the Apostle of God. (TA.)

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Lexicological and Grammatical Terms

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