Classical Arabic - English Dictionary

by Edward William Lane (1801-1876)

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ابجد ابد ابر

1. ⇒ أبد

أَبَدَ, aor. ـِ {يَأْبِدُ}, inf. n. أُبُودٌ, He remained, stayed, abode, or dwelt, (T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) constantly, continually, or permanently, without quitting, (T, L,) بِمَكَانٍ in a place; (T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ;) and so أَبَدَ having for its aor. ـُ {يَأْبُدُ}. (TA.)

Root: ابد - Entry: 1. Signification: A2

أَبَدَ, (Ṣ, M, A, &c.,) aor. ـِ {يَأْبِدُ} and ـُ {يَأْبُدُ}, (T, Ṣ, M, L, Mṣb, Ḳ,), inf. n. أُبُودٌ; (M, L, Mṣb;) andتأبّد↓; (T, M, A, Mgh, L;) He (a beast) became wild, or sky; syn. تَوَحَّشَ: (Ṣ, M, A, Mgh, L, Mṣb, Ḳ:) [because wild animals live long, unless killed by accident; accord. to what is said by Aṣ and others in explanation of أوَابِدٌ (sing. آبِدَةٌ) applied to animals, as meaning wild:] took fright, and fled, or ran away at random: (Mgh:) took fright at, and shunned, mankind. (T, Mṣb.) أُبُودٌ also signifies The shrinking from a thing, or shunning it; syn. نُفُورٌ. (Kull pp. 30 and 31.) And أَبِدَ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) aor. ـَ {يَأْبَدُ}; (Ḳ;) andتأبّد↓; (A, Ḳ;) He (a man, Ṣ, A,) became unsocial, unsociable, unfamiliar, or sky; like a wild animal; syn. توحّش. (Ṣ, A, Ḳ.)

Root: ابد - Entry: 1. Signification: A3

[Hence,] أَبَدَ, (Ḳ,) aor. ـِ {يَأْبِدُ}, inf. n. أُبُودٌ, (TA,)He (a poet) made use, in his verses, of words, or phrases, strange, unusual, unfamiliar, or far from being intelligible, (Ḳ,* TA,) such as were not understood (Ḳ) at first sight, or on first consideration. (TA.)

Root: ابد - Entry: 1. Signification: A4

[And perhaps from أَبِدَ in the sense explained above, but more probably, I think, by the substitution of أ for و,] أَبِدَ, aor. ـَ {يَأْبَدُ}, (T, Ṣ, &c.,), inf. n. أَبَدٌ, (L,) He (a man, Ṣ) was angry; (T, Ṣ, M, L, Ḳ;) as also أَمِدَ and وَبِدَ and وَمِدَ and عَبِدَ. (T, L.) You say, أَبِدَ عَلَيْهِ He was angry with him. (L.)

2. ⇒ أبّد

أبّد, inf. n. تَأْبِيدٌ, He made, or rendered, perpetual. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) [See also the pass. part. n. below.] لَمْ أَفْعَلْ تَأْبِيدًا is a phrase used as though meaningلَمْ آتِ بِآبِدَةٍ↓ [I did not a deed ever to be remembered, or mentioned]. (Ḥam p. 191.)

Root: ابد - Entry: 2. Signification: A2

He, or it, made [a beast] to take fright; to become wild, or sky. (KL.)

5. ⇒ تأبّد

تأبّد: see 1, in two places.

Root: ابد - Entry: 5. Signification: A2

He (a man) was long distant from his home; expl. by طَالَتْ غُرْبَتُهُ; (Ḳ;) or was long in a state of celibacy; طالت عُزْبَتُهُ, as in one copy of the Ḳ; (TA;) and became little in need, or little desirous, of women. (Ḳ.)

Root: ابد - Entry: 5. Signification: A3

It (a place of abode or sojourning) became deserted [by mankind]: (T, M, Ḳ:) and became inhabited by wild animals. (T, M, A.)


إِبْدٌ: see إِبِدٌ


أَبَدٌ Time, syn. دَهْرٌ, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) in an absolute sense: (TA:) or a long time, syn. دَهْرٌ طَوِيلٌ: (A, and Mgh: [and this may be meant in the Ṣ, &c. by the syn. دَهْرٌ alone, q. v.:]) or, properly, a long time (دهر طويل) that is unlimited: (Mṣb, TA:) or an extended space of time that is indivisible; for you say زَمَانُ كَذَا: “the time of such a thing,” but not أَبَدُ كَذَا: (Er-Rághib:) [and generally, time, or duration, or continuance, or existence, without end; endless time,, &c.; prospective eternity; opposed to أَزَلٌ, which signifies “time, or duration, &c., without beginning:” (see the latter word for further explanations, &c.:) each of these significations may be meant by the explanation in the Ṣ and M and Ḳ, which is also given in the Mṣb: each correctly applies in particular instances:] pl. [of pauc.] آبَادٌ (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ) and [of mult.] أُبُودٌ (Ṣ, M, Ḳ) [and أَبَدُونَ, of which an ex. will be found below]: but the use of these pls. is restricted to particular cases, to signify portions of time, or to serve as corroboratives to the sing.: (MF:) as signifying an extended indivisible space of time, [or the like,] أَبَدٌ should have neither dual nor pl.; but آبَادٌ is sometimes said, when the sing. is restricted to denote a particular part, or portion, of the whole of that to which it applies, in like manner as a generic noun is restricted to a special and partial signification: some, however, have mentioned آبَادٌ as being post-classical; not of the language of the Arabs called العَرَبُ العَرْبَآءُ. (Er-Rághib.) طَالَ الأَبَدْ عَلَى لُبَدْ [The time became long to Lubad, the last, and the longest of life, of Luk- mán's seven vultures, to the term of the life of which his own term of life was decreed to extend,] is a proverb applied to any thing that has been of long duration. (M.) And you say, رَزَقَكَ ٱللّٰهُ عُمُرًا طَوِيلَ الآبَادِ بَعِيدَ الآمَادِ [May God grant thee a life long in duration (lit. durations, the pl. form being used not in its proper sense, but to give intensiveness of signification), and remote in limit (lit. limits)]. (A.) And كَانَ هٰذَا فِى آبَادِ الدَّهْرِ This was a long time ago. (Mgh.) Andأَبَدٌ آبِدٌ↓ (TA) andأَبَدٌ أَبِيدٌ↓, (Ṣ, M, TA,) meaning دَائِمٌ [in an intensive sense]; (TA;) [A long, or an endless, period of time;] like as you say, دَهْرٌ دَاهِرٌ (Ṣ) or دَهْرٌ دَهِيرٌ. (M.) [In each of these phrases, the latter word is added as a corroborative, or to give intensiveness to the signification.] لِلْأَبِدَ and لِأَبِدٍ and [in an intensive sense, as will be seen below,] لِأَبِدَ أَبَدٍ and لِأَبَدِ الأَبَدِ, accord. to different recitals of a trad., signify To the end of time; for ever; and for ever and ever. (TA.) أَبَدًا is an adv. n., of which the signification includes all future time; [meaning Ever; like قَطُّ in relation to past time;] (El-Khafájee, El-Bedr Ed-Demámeenee, MF;) and عَلَى الأَبَدِ signifies the same. (TA.) [So, too, does الأَبَدَ, unless used in a limited sense known to the hearer.] When you say, لَا أُكَلِّمُهُ أَبَدًا, you mean, [I will not speak to him as long as I live, or henceforth, or ever; or I will never speak to him; i. e.,] from the time of your speaking to the end of your life. (Mṣb.) [In this case, أَبَدًا may also be considered as a mere corroborative. It is used in both these ways (للتَّأْسِيسِ and لِلتَّوْكِيدِ) in affirmative as well as negative sentences. For exs. of its use in affirmative sentences, see the Ḳur xviii. 2 and iv. 60, &c.] One also says, لَا أَفْعَلُهُ, (Ṣ, M, A,) and لَا آتِيهِ, (T, Ḳ,) أَبَدَ الآبَادِ, (T, M, A, Ḳ,) which, though of classical authority, is said to be no evidence of the use of آباد as a pl. of أَبَدٌ in a general way by the Arabs of the classical ages, as it is here added merely as a corroborative, as آزال is in the phrase أَزَلَ الآزَالِ; (MF;) and أَبَدَ الأَبَدِينَ, (M, A, Ḳ,) in which the latter word is not a rel. n., for if so it would be الأَبَدِيِّينَ, but app. a pl., (M,) like أَرَضُونَ; (M, Ḳ;) andأَبَدَ الآبِدِينَ↓, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) like as you say, دَهْرَ الآبِدِينَ; (Ṣ;) andأَبَدَ الأَبَدِيَّةِ↓; (M, Ḳ;) andأَبَدَ الأَبِيدِ↓; (T, Ṣ, M, A, Ḳ;) andأَبِيدَ الأَبِيدِ↓; (M, Ḳ;) and أَبَدَ الأَبَدِ; (Ḳ;) and أَبَدَ الدَّهْرِ (M, Ḳ; [in the T يَدَ الدَّهْرِ;]) all of which phrases are the same in meaning; (Ḳ;) [i. e. I will not do it, and I will not come to him, (or لا آتيه may here mean the same as لا افعله,) during the endless space of all future times, or time; or the like; or for ever and ever; εἰς αἰῶνα τῶν αἰώνων; in seculum seculorum; in omne ævum;] the last word in every case being a corroborative. (MF.)

Root: ابد - Entry: أَبَدٌ Signification: A2

Also, [for ذُو أَبَدٍ, and (applied to a fem. n.) ذَاتُ أَبَدٍ,] Lasting: or everlasting. (Ṣ, A, Ḳ.) So in the saying, الدُّنيَاء أَمَدٌ وَالآخِرَةُ أَبَدٌ [The present state of existence is limited in duration, but the final state of existence is everlasting]. (ʼObeyd Ibn-ʼOmeyr and L.) And الأَبَدُ signifies [The Everlasting; i. e. God; because He alone isالبَاقِى الأَبَدِيّ The Enduring without end or cessation; for the Muslims hold that all living creatures (even the angels) must die, and be raised again to life: or] The Ancient without beginning. (Ḳ.)

Root: ابد - Entry: أَبَدٌ Dissociation: B

Also Offspring that is a year old. (Ḳ.)


أَبِدٌ Unsocial, unsociable, unfamiliar, or shy; like a wild animal; applied to a man, and to a young camel: (Ṣ, L:) andإِبِدٌ, applied to a female slave, and to a she-ass, signifies shunning mankind, shy, or wild. (Ḳ.) [See also آبِدٌ.]

Root: ابد - Entry: أَبِدٌ Dissociation: B

See also إِبِدٌ, in four places.


إِبِدٌ: see أَبِدٌ.

Root: ابد - Entry: إِبِدٌ Dissociation: B

This word, (Lth, ISh, Ṣ, Ḳ,) said by Lth and ISh to be the only word of its measure heard from the Arabs except إِبِلٌ and نِكِحٌ and خِطِبٌ, but Az says that he had not heard the last two from any person worthy of reliance, and that they are pronounced نِكْحٌ and خِطْبٌ, (L,) [see إِبِلٌ,] andأَبِدٌ↓ andإِبْدٌ↓, (Ḳ,) which are thought by Az to be dial. vars. of the first, (L,) applied to a female slave, and to a she-ass, signify Prolific; that breeds, or brings forth, plentifully; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) andأَبِدٌ↓ andأَبِدَةٌ↓ (Aboo-Málik, TA) andإِبِدَةٌ↓, (Aboo-Málik, Ḳ,) applied to a she-camel, signify the same: (Aboo-Málik, Ḳ, TA:) and إِبِدٌ (Lth, ISh, L) andأَبِدٌ↓, (M, L,) applied to a female slave, (M, L,) and to a she-ass, (Lth, ISh, M, L,) and to a mare, (M, L,) that brings forth every year; (Lth, ISh, L;) or applied as a pl. to the female slave and the mare and the she-ass, that breed, or bring forth: (M, L:) and الإِبِدَانِ the female slave and the mare. (Ḳ, TA.) In the following saying,

* لَنْ يُقْلِعَ الجَدُّ النَّكِدْ *
* الَّابِجَدِّ ذِى الإِبِدْ *
* فِى كُلِّ مَا عَامٍ تَلِدْ *

[Hard fortune will not depart save with the fortune which is the necessary attendant of the possessor of the female slave, as long as he possesses her, (or, if we take ذى in the sense of هٰذِهِ, save with the fortune of this female slave,) who every year (ما being redundant) brings forth,] الابد means the female slave because her being prolific is an obstacle to prosperity, and is not good fortune; i. e., she only increases evil [and brings reproach upon her master by bearing him children; for the Arab in ancient times was considered as dishonoured by his having a child by a slave]. (Ṣ.) The Arabs also said,لَنْ يَبْلُغَ الجَدَّ النَّكِدْ الاَّ الأَبِدْ↓, meaning Nothing will attain to the object of removing hard fortune save female slaves and beasts or cattle which breed, or bring forth. (M, L: [in the latter of which is added, فِى كُلِّ عَامٍ تَلِدْ in every year bringing forth.])


أَبِدَةٌ: see إِبِدٌ.


إِبِدَةٌ: see إِبِدٌ.


أَبَدِىٌّ: see أَبَدٌ, last sentence but one.


أَبَدِيَّةٌ [The quality, or attribute, of unlimited, indivisible, or endless, duration; everlastingness]. (M, Ḳ.) See أَبَدٌ.

Root: ابد - Entry: أَبَدِيَّةٌ Signification: A2

أَبَدِيَّاتٌ a term applied to Sayings of which the following is an ex.: لَا آتِيكَ مَا بَلَّ بَحْرٌ صُوفَةً. (M in art. صوف [q. v.];, &c.)


أَبُودٌ: see آبِدٌ.


أَبِيدٌ: see أَبَدٌ, in three places.

آبِدٌ / آبِدَةٌ

آبِدٌ Remaining, staying, abiding, or dwelling, constantly, continually, or permanently, in a place; applied to a man [and to a bird]. (L.) And أَوَابِدُ [pl. of آبِدَةٌ] Birds that remain in a country constantly, winter and summer; (T, L;) contr. of قَوَاطِعُ. (A, L.)

Root: ابد - Entry: آبِدٌ Signification: A2

For the phrases أَبَدٌ آبِدٌ and أَبَدَ الآبِدِينَ, see أَبَدٌ.

Root: ابد - Entry: آبِدٌ Signification: A3

A wild animal; (M, L, Mṣb;) that shuns, and takes fright at, mankind, amp;c.: (L, Mṣb:) fem. with ة {آبِدَةٌ}: pl. [properly fem.] أَوَابِدُ, (M, Mgh, L,) and [masc. and fem.] أُبَّدٌ: (M, L:) andأَبُودٌ is syn. with آبِدٌ; (M;) as alsoمُتَأَبِّدٌ. (A.) Wild animals are called أَوَابِدُ (Ṣ, M, L, Ḳ) and أُبَّدٌ (M, L, Ḳ) because they endure for a long, or [naturally] unlimited, time; (M, L;) because they do not die a natural death, (Aṣ, M, L, Ḳ,) but from some evil accident; and the same is asserted of the serpent. (Aṣ, M, L.) [See also أَبِدٌ.] [Hence,] قَيْدُ الأَوَابِدِThe light, or active, horse, which overtakes the wild animals, and which they can hardly, or never, escape: so called because he prevents their escaping the pursuer like a shackle. (Mṣb.) [See also art. قيد.] [Hence also the saying,] النِّعَمُ أَوَابِدُ فَقَيِّدُوهَا بِالشُّكْرِ[Benefits are fugitive, or fleeting; therefore detain ye them by gratitude]. (A trad.)


آبِدَةٌ fem. of آبِدٌ, q. v.

Root: ابد - Entry: آبِدَةٌ Signification: A2

Also, [as a subst.,]A deed, (Ḥar p. 364,) or a calamity, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) ever to be remembered, or mentioned, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ, Ḥar,) by reason of its extraordinary nature, and its grievousness: (Ḥar:) or a great, or formidable, event, at which people take fright, or are alarmed: (TA:) or a strange, abominable, or evil, thing: (Ḥam p. 627:) pl. أَوَابِدُ. (Ḳ.) You say, جَاءَ فُلَانٌ بِآبِدَةٍ Such a one did, or brought to pass, [a deed or] calamity ever to be remembered, or mentioned. (Ṣ.) See also 2.

Root: ابد - Entry: آبِدَةٌ Signification: A3

A strange, an unusual, or an unfamiliar, word or saying; one far from being intelligible; (M;) pl. أَوَابِدُ, signifying expressions of subtile meanings; so called because remote from perspicuity. (Mṣb.)

Root: ابد - Entry: آبِدَةٌ Signification: A4

The pl. also signifies ‡ Strange, unusual, unfamiliar, or extraordinary, rhymes, or verses, or poems; syn. شَوَارِدُ مِنَ القَوَافِى, (Ṣ,) or قَوَافٍ شُرَّدٌ. (Ḳ.) El-Farezdaḳ says,

* لَنْ تُدْرِكُوا كَرَمِى بِلُؤْمِ أَبِيكُمُ *
* وَأَوَابِدِى بِتَنَحُّلِ الأَشْعَارِ *

[Ye will not attain to my nobility with the ignobleness of your father, nor to my extraordinary verses by arrogating to yourselves the verses of other men]. (Ṣ.) [See أَبَدَ.]

مُؤَبَّدٌ / مُؤَبَّدَةٌ

مُؤَبَّدٌ [Made, or rendered, perpetual]. You say, وَقَفَ أَرْضَهُ وَقْفًا مُؤَبَدًا He made his land an unalienable bequest for pious uses in perpetuity, not to be sold nor to be inherited. (T.)

Root: ابد - Entry: مُؤَبَّدٌ Signification: A2

Also, with ة {مُؤَبَّدَةٌ}, A she-camel that is wild, and intractable, or unmanageable; syn. وَحْشِيَّةٌ مُعْتَاصَةٌ. (Ḳ.)


مُتَأَبِّدٌ: see آبِدٌ.

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